Sunday, May 27, 2012

NEA Safety Audit Guidelines


NEA Safety Audit Guidelines

1 The Pollution Control Department (PCD) of the National Environment Agency licenses the import, sale, storage, transportation and use of hazardous chemicals. These chemicals are listed and controlled under the Environmental Protection and Management Act and its Regulations
.
2 Besides having stringent regulatory controls, it is equally imperative that companies have adequate and effective systems in place to ensure safe management of hazardous chemicals.
3 The Safety Audit Scheme is, therefore, to spur companies to systematically identify and rectify weaknesses in their management systems and practices of handling hazardous chemicals once every two years.
4 Companies under the Scheme can either conduct their own safety audit studies in-house or engage accredited consultants to do so on their behalf. Companies that are going to be conducting safety audits for the first time are advised to engage an NEA accredited consultant.

5 Companies shall seek prior approval from PCD should they decide to use an in-house audit team. When appointing the in-house audit team, the companies shall ensure that :
  1. the team leader should not feel inhibited from disclosing strengths and weaknesses and in the management of hazardous substances and in recommending necessary actions,
  2. the team and team leader's skills and experience are appropriate,
  3. top management submits a letter to PCD stating that it has confidence in the skills and experience of the team and team leader and that it will act on their recommendations (where practicable).
6 To ensure compliance with the recommendations, a follow-up action plan with the date of compliance shall be included in the Safety Audit Report.  Our officer will arrange with the company for an inspection upon the compliance.

7 The elements to be audited under the Scheme are in Annex 1.
8 The list of accredited consultants is in Annex 2.
9 The guideline for the safety audit report is in Annex 3.

10 A list of reference reading material is in Annex 4.
[ Note for Industries under Ministry of Manpower's Safety Management System Audit Scheme and ENV's Safety Audit Scheme. ]

Guideline on Safety Audit Annex 4



Guideline on Safety Audit Annex 4



 REFERENCE READING MATERIAL 



*Environmental Audit Handbook
Ministry of the Environment and National Council on the Environment
ICC Guide to Effective Environmental Auditing
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

*Environmental Auditing
United Nations Environment Programme

*Environmental Auditing
An Introduction and Practical Guide

British Library

ISO 14000 Standards
14001 - Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Specification
14004 - EMS - General
14010 - Environmental (Env) Auditing - General
14011 - Env Auditing Procedures
14012 - Env Auditors
Safety Audit for the Safe Handling of Hazardous Chemicals
ISO 14000 Guide
Complete Guide to ISO 14000
NB:
  1. * - These references are available at the Woodland Regional Library.
  2. If your company is going to conduct safety audits for the first time, it is advisable that you engage a consultant accredited by NEA.


INDUSTRIES UNDER MINISTRY OF MANPOWER'S SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND NEA'S SAFETY AUDIT SCHEME
As of 1st Mar 2001, the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) has extended its Safety Management System (SMS) scheme to cover oil and petrochemical industries and wafer fabrication plants. As NEA's Safety Audit elements are covered under MOM's SMS scheme, there shall not be a need for industries covered under both schemes to carry out a separate safety audit for NEA subject to the following procedures:

  1. Industries engage 3rd party auditors registered with both MOM and NEA or 2nd party auditors from their companies' corporate HQs with the approval of both MOM and NEA to carry out MOM-SMS once every 2 years; and
  2. The SMS reports shall be submitted to MOM with a copy to NEA. NEA will accept MOM-SMS as NEA-SA.

Guide line on Safety Audit ANNEX 3


Guide line on Safety Audit ANNEX 3



GUIDELINES ON THE SAFETY AUDIT REPORT


 1 GENERAL
1.1 The report shall be structured as follows:
Chapt1 Executive summary
Chapt2 Introduction
Chapt3 Overview
Chapt4 Assessment
Chapt5 Findings / Recommendations
Chapt6 Certification
1.2 The report shall be bound in A4-size. 1 copy shall be submitted to PCD and 1 copy to each of the following agencies for information:
  1. National Environment Agency
    Pollution Control Department
    Chemical Control Section
    40 Scotts Road, Environment Building #12-00
    Singapore 228231
    Attn: Mr Martinn Ho
  2. Director
    Singapore Civil Defence Force
    HAZMAT Department
    91 Ubi Ave 4, S(408827)
    Attn: LTC Teong How Hwa

  3. Occupational Safety and Health Division
    18 Havelock Rd, #05-01, S(059764)
    Attn: Mr Yeong Chark Sung

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
2.1 The audit's scope, schedule, methodology and rationale for the choice of methodology used in the audit shall be outlined.
2.2 The findings of the audit and recommendations for improving the safe management of hazardous substances in the facilities shall be outlined.
3 INTRODUCTION
3.1 General description of the company and its activities.
3.2 The audit's scope, schedule, methodology and rationale for the choice of methodology used in the audit shall be elaborated.
3.3 The audit team leader and members are to be introduced. Their qualifications and experience should be listed.
4 OVERVIEW OF USE/HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
4.1 This section should present a description of the storage sites, processes and operations in which hazardous substances are involved and an overview of the likely hazards present.
4.2 Maps, sketches and a list of the types/quantities of hazardous chemicals stored should be included. The list should also state each substance's UN Hazard Class, PSA DG Group and NFPA Hazard Rating, if available.
5 ASSESSMENT
5.1 This section shall present the assessment of the management of hazardous substances in the facility with respect to the prescribed eleven (11) audit elements.
6 FINDINGS/RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 The key findings of the audit and recommendations to improve the safe management of hazardous substances in the facility shall be presented in detail along with their underlying rationale and an action plan for their implementation.
6.2 Factors that could result in a hazardous / catastrophic event, the likelihood and consequences of such an event and the control measures at the facility should be discussed.
7 CERTIFICATION
7.1 Certification by audit team leader (or consultant) and senior management that:
  1. the handling and storage of hazardous chemicals at the site comply with the provisions / sections of the EPMA,
  2. all reasonable professional skill, care and diligence had been taken in preparing the audit report and that the contents are a true representation of the facts,
  3. the site conforms generally to guidelines pertaining to the safe management of hazardous chemicals stated in the (SEMI international standards/specifications or FM loss prevention engineering guidelines or equivalent (only for wafer fabrication plants)
  4. the maintenance of fire alarm and protection systems and other fire safety works conform to the requirements stated in the NFPA, UFC or UBC codes or any code of practice established by PSB and FSB. (for sites storing and handling flammable and combustible substances)
  5. after the implementation of recommendations, the occurrence of a hazardous substance spill/release at the site, with off-site impacts, in unlikely.

_______________________
Name
Lead Auditor
Name of Safety Audit Firm
Date: _____________
  _______________________
Name
Auditor
Name of Safety Audit Firm
Date: _____________

_______________________
Name
Designation of management in charge of FM or EHS
Name of Company Audited
Date: _____________

_______________________
Name
Designation of senior management (e.g CEO, MD, GM or Plant Manager)
Name of Company Audited
Date: _____________

Safety Audit Guideline Annex 1

Safety Audit Guideline Annex 1

 

ELEMENT TO BE AUDITED UNDER THE SAFETY AUDIT SCHEME 
SAFETY POLICY
The audit shall ascertain whether the installation has a written safety policy endorsed by top management in which safe management of hazardous chemicals are adequately covered.
SAFETY INFORMATION
The audit shall ascertain whether the management of the company has set up and maintained a comprehensive set of written safety information to enable all its staff to handle and store chemicals safely. The information shall cover those items normally reflected in the material safety data sheets of the chemicals, which include identification and understanding the potential hazards of chemicals, safe working procedures and emergency actions to take in case of emergency.
SAFE WORK PRACTICES
The audit shall ascertain whether safe work procedures have been established to ensure the safe handling, including transportation, loading and unloading, storage and use of hazardous chemicals by plant employees as well as contract workers. Identification of all hazardous chemicals and their hazards used in the plant, a work authorisation system and compliance of standards and regulatory requirements should be part of the safe work procedures.
MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
The audit shall ascertain whether the installation has developed and instituted a system including use of proper written procedures to manage changes to handling of hazardous chemicals. It shall also ascertain whether the plant staff have been informed of and adequately trained to safely manage such changes.
MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES
The audit shall ascertain whether a maintenance system to ensure that all facilities used for the handling and storage of hazardous chemicals, including storage containers, are maintained in sound and good working order at all times.
TRAINING
The audit shall ascertain whether training provided to staff responsible for the handling and storage of hazardous chemicals is effective and that such training adequately covers the safety information and safe work practices. The training shall ensure staff are kept up to date on changes to the types and work procedures in the handling of the hazardous chemicals.
INCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS
The audit shall ascertain whether the installation has established a system to investigate every incident in the workplace involving the handling and storage of hazardous chemicals, and to promptly address the investigation's findings and to implement the recommendations.
GENERAL PLANT INSPECTION/REVIEWS
The audit shall ascertain whether regular inspections and reviews on handling and storage of hazardous substances have been conducted, and procedures for reporting potential hazardous conditions and monitoring the remedial actions established.
HAZARD ANALYSIS
The audit shall check on whether the company has an established programme to carry out hazard analysis on the handling of hazardous chemicals so as to identify, assess and evaluate potential hazards, especially when new hazardous chemicals or a significant increase in the quantities of hazardous chemicals are handled. The audit shall also ascertained whether the company has an established procedure to record these hazards and develop and implement means to eliminate the hazards or reduce the hazards to an acceptable level of risk.
EMERGENCY PLANNING AND RESPONSE
The audit shall ascertain whether the on-site emergency action plan established by the installation can deal with all accidental releases and/or fires of hazardous chemicals and whether there are adequate emergency equipment stored on standby and maintained in good working order.
The audit shall also ascertain whether regular rehearsals of all or part of the emergency action plan were carried out and documented. It shall also ascertain whether the lessons learnt from these rehearsals were recorded and used during updates of the plan.
CONTRACTOR SAFETY
The audit shall ascertain whether contractors engaged to handle hazardous chemicals, including transportation, have been carefully selected, informed of their safety responsibilities and adequately trained to handle hazardous chemicals safely and to respond to emergency.
ADDITIONAL ITEMS
The audit shall ascertain if the site conforms generally to guidelines pertaining to the safe management of hazardous chemicals stated in the Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) international standards/specifications or Factory Mutual (FM) loss prevention engineering guidelines or equivalent (only for wafer fabrication plants)
The audit shall ascertain if the maintenance of fire alarm and protection systems and other fire safety works conform to the requirements stated in the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) code or Uniform Fire Code (UFC) or Uniform Building Code (UBC) or any code of practice established by PSB and FSB. (for sites storing or handling flammable or combustible substances)

Hazardous Substances Safety Audit Guidelines


Hazardous Substances Safety Audit Guidelines


1 The Pollution Control Department (PCD) of the National Environment Agency licenses the import, sale, storage, transportation and use of hazardous chemicals. These chemicals are listed and controlled under the Environmental Protection and Management Act and its Regulations.

2 Besides having stringent regulatory controls, it is equally imperative that companies have adequate and effective systems in place to ensure safe management of hazardous chemicals.
3 The Safety Audit Scheme is, therefore, to spur companies to systematically identify and rectify weaknesses in their management systems and practices of handling hazardous chemicals once every two years.
4 Companies under the Scheme can either conduct their own safety audit studies in-house or engage accredited consultants to do so on their behalf. Companies that are going to be conducting safety audits for the first time are advised to engage an NEA accredited consultant.

5 Companies shall seek prior approval from PCD should they decide to use an in-house audit team. When appointing the in-house audit team, the companies shall ensure that :
  1. the team leader should not feel inhibited from disclosing strengths and weaknesses and in the management of hazardous substances and in recommending necessary actions,
  2. the team and team leader's skills and experience are appropriate,
  3. top management submits a letter to PCD stating that it has confidence in the skills and experience of the team and team leader and that it will act on their recommendations (where practicable).
6 To ensure compliance with the recommendations, a follow-up action plan with the date of compliance shall be included in the Safety Audit Report.  Our officer will arrange with the company for an inspection upon the compliance.

7 The elements to be audited under the Scheme are in Annex 1.
8 The list of accredited consultants is in Annex 2.
9 The guideline for the safety audit report is in Annex 3.

10 A list of reference reading material is in Annex 4.
[ Note for Industries under Ministry of Manpower's Safety Management System Audit Scheme and ENV's Safety Audit Scheme. ]

Guideline for Emergency Response Plan for the storage of Hazardous Substances

Guideline for Emergency Response Plan for the storage of Hazardous Substances

Hazardous chemicals have the potential to seriously endanger life and pollute the environment. Such chemicals have to be carefully managed at all time to prevent any accidental release. The successful implementation of a chemical safety programme requires co-operation from the industries to manage their hazardous chemicals properly and the support of the general public.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN

Notwithstanding the controls and precautions taken, one cannot rule out the possibility of spillages and accidental releases of hazardous substances during transportation. With well drawn up emergency plans and proper training, such releases can be effectively contained and the damage to the environment and dangers to the health and safety of public minimised.

As a condition for granting licences and transport approvals, companies are required to put up emergency response plans.

The plan must be comprehensive and should contain the following key elements :-
  • notification procedures; (persons and authorities to contact and how to contact)
  • emergency procedures to contain and decontaminate spills; (immediate actions to be taken by driver/ground staff and actions to be taken by the company upon being informed)
  • emergency equipment to be carried on the vehicle and at base such as personal protection equipment, absorbents, neutralising solutions and salvage drums;
  • Material Safety Data Sheets of the hazardous substances transported.
The emergency response plan (ERP) shall be vetted and approved by SCDF before a Transport Approval may be issued.

Under the provisions of The Environmental Protection and Management (Hazardous Substances) Regulations, in the event of a chemical fire / release, the licence holders\transport approval holders are required to:
  • block off the area contaminated by the hazardous substance;
  • notify SCDF and the PCD;
  • take immediate action to have the area decontaminated and return the situation to normal.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (ERP) FOR THE STORAGE/USE OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

The key elements of the ERP are briefly as follows: 

Introduction
 
1 Introduce the activities of your company and its need for the storage/use of hazardous substances.
2 Include maps/diagrams of the site and storage areas.
3 Include the inventory of hazardous substances stored as follows:


Name of Substance UN Hazard Class PSA Dangerous Goods Class Unit Capacity of Container/Packaging Max Qty Stored at Any One Time





  
Hazard Assessment 
 
4 Describe the hazards of the substances being stored (e.g. flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive)

5 Describe the possible spill/release scenarios involving the hazardous substances stored including a quantitative estimation of the hazard zones. The worst case scenario is to be highlighted.

 Support/Training 
 
6 List the fire protection and pollution prevention/mitigation equipment at your site.

7 Indicate the type/s of training received by your staff and/or your emergency response team.

8 Include a schedule to exercise, review and test the ERP so as to keep current and operational.

Response
 
9 Describe the specific actions that will be taken by your staff and/or your emergency response team in the event of a spill/release of hazardous substances.


For information/assistance, please consult the MSDS, your hazardous substances supplier

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

Scheduling of Mandatory Training

Scheduling of Mandatory Training Program for Relevant personnel

Prior to scheduling  relevant personnel for the mandatory training program,
organization need to conduct training needs analysis first before Identifying and
planning for the mandatory WSH training for the relevant personnel because
training needs analysis is based on the logical sequence of comparing  a person's
skills level with the demands of his or her job and hence the identification of the
person actual skills shortfalls

Organization shall establish procedures to identify the training needs of managers,
supervisory staff and workers so as to provide them with comprehensive training
On in-house safety rules and regulations, statutory requirements, safe work
Practices, and other relevant occupational safety and health related training
       

Training for different personnel at various organisation level.


Training for Management Personnel

All relevant management staff should undergo safety training and be equipped
with the proper understanding of the safety management system, safety policy and
organisation, statutory requirements on safety, and their duties and responsibilities
in safety and health

The training should also provide the relevant management staff with the tools and
techniques needed for managing safety and health effectively at the workplace.                        

Training for Supervisory Personnel

All direct and contractors’ supervisory personnel should undergo the necessary
training to achieve a better understanding of the safety aspect of the work
operations to ensure tasks are carried out safely. All supervisory personnel
should also be trained in the skills and methods required to perform their tasks
competently and safely, and to lead workers in safe work practices.

Training for Workers

All new direct and contractors’ workers should undergo the organization in-house
safety orientation training programme before they are allowed to commence work.
The organization should ensure that no worker is assigned to carry out any high
risk or hazardous job unless he has been provided with the necessary training.

The safety orientation training for workers should cover the relevant safe work practices,
in-house safety rules and regulations, hazard identification in work areas and the response
emergency. Safety training programme should be conducted in languages understood by
the workers.

(4) Mandatory Training

The Factories ( Safety Training Order) Regulations
requires the workers
,supervisor and managers working in a construction sector or working in a certain
industrial premises to attend a mandatory safety training course designed for their
job.

An organization can in fact check if an employee has attended the following courses and
if they will be issued with certificates valid for two or four years (for CSOC and SSIC
only) based on their period of employment in Singapore by navigating to the MOM
website Check Worker’s Training Records

· Building Construction Supervisors Safety Course (BCSS)

· Construction Safety Orientation Course (General Trade) (CSOC)

· Shipyard Supervisors Safety Course (SSSC)

· Shipyard Safety Instruction Course (General Trade) (SSIC)
               

Maintenance of training records

Organization shall ensure that they document and maintain records of all safety
training received by all the workers. The safety training records kept should include
the date of training, topics covered in the training programmes, trainers conducting
the training and examination results of the training.

Factories ( Safety Training Order) Regulations

Factories ( Safety Training Courses) Order 2001 and the WSH ( Construction)
Regulations  2007, regulation 9,
comes into effect in June 2001 which enforced
the requirements for mandatory training for certain categories of persons employed
in the construction work site and in certain industrial  premises. This is an integral
part of the Ministry’s strategy to curb accidents through education

Under the Factories ( Safety Training Order) Regulations, it requires the following
categories of workers to attend a mandatory safety training course designed for their
job and they are:
  •  Workers level 
  • Supervisor level
  • OSH personnel    
  • Managerial level
To administer the mandatory training in WSH for the relevant personnel at the
workplace  would require the  organization to consider the need to plan for and
administer the mandatory training through the following steps
  • ·  Identification of mandatory training program

  • ·  Identify the accredited training providers

  • ·  Scheduling of mandatory training programs

  •   Maintenance of training records
Information on the Mandatory WSH training for the construction industries Vis-a-vis the
worker level, supervisor level and the manager level as well as the accredited training
providers can be gathered from the Ministry of Manpower Websites   
           
Mandatory WSH Training
         

ALL LORRY CRANE OPERATORS TO BE CERTIFIED BY SEPTEMBER 2013

ALL LORRY CRANE OPERATORS TO BE CERTIFIED BY SEPTEMBER 2013


ALL LORRY CRANE OPERATORS TO BE CERTIFIED BY SEPTEMBER 2013
New course launched by WSH Council to enhance safe operation of lorry cranes

By September 2013, all lorry crane operators will have to be certified under a new training course aimed at enhancing safe operation of cranes. This course is a new requirement under the Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) (Operation of Cranes) Regulations 20111. There are currently about 3,500 lorry cranes2 being operated island-wide and they may pose potential risks to workers and members of
the public as they operate on the roads even during peak periods for landscaping and other activities.

Lorry Crane Operator Course

The WSH Council, in consultation with the National Crane Safety Taskforce,  has developed a new course and test for lorry crane operators. The Lorry Crane  Operator Course (LCOC) is a 2½ day course designed to equip lorry crane operators  with the basic skills and competencies required for the safe operation of lorry cranes.


 Enhancements to the Regulations were previously announced by Mr Hawazi Daipi, Senior Parliamentary Secretary for Ministry of Education and Manpower at the 28th Annual Construction Safety, Health and Security Campaign, organised by Singapore Contractors Association Ltd on 19 July 2011. The Regulations that took effect in September 2011 will strengthen the safety of lifting operations by cranes by requiring the establishment and implementation of a comprehensive Lifting Plan, and training for different members of the lifting team, including the crane operator, lifting supervisor, rigger and signalman.


 Lorry Cranes are referenced in the Workplace Safety and Health (Operation of Cranes) Regulations 2011 as a lorry incorporating an articulated arm mounted on the lorry which is used for loading, unloading and lifting of materials or goods.


The WSH Council set up the National Crane Safety Taskforce in mid 2009 to review the safety of crane operations and make recommendations for industry-level mprovements. The Taskforce announced its threepronged strategy in Sept 2009 to enhance training, outreach efforts and new standards/code of practice.


Under the WSH (Operation of Cranes) Regulations, new lorry crane operators will  have to complete the LCOC and pass the assessments before he is allowed to  operate a lorry crane.


The new course will ensure that all operators are properly trained to be able to  operate lorry cranes competently and safely by September 2013. Besides training  the operators on the roles and responsibilities of a lorry crane operator, the course will also cover other key topics such as principal components of a lorry crane, how an operator can identify possible hazards, implement control measures and perform safe lifting operations.


Experienced lorry crane operators who have at least three years of experience in operating lorry cranes and can show relevant proof of his competency and/or experience will be exempted from the LCOC and allowed to take the Lorry Crane Operator Competency Test (LCOCT) directly. Those who do not pass the test will be required to enrol for the LCOC. The course is available for registration with the BCA Academy from January 2012. More details on LCOC and LCOCT can be found in Annex A.


Mr Ismadi Mohd, Deputy Director of Equipment Safety with the Ministry of  Manpower’s Occupational Safety and Health Division and a member of the Crane  Safety taskforce said, “Over the past five years, unsafe lorry crane work practices  resulted in 4 fatalities across more than 40 incidents. The Ministry’s investigations show that many of these incidents could have been prevented if lorry crane operators were better trained and adhered to proper safe work procedures while  carrying out crane operations. This shows the need to enhance the training and  competencies of our operators.”


Leading this enhancement is Mr Tan Wee Seng, Chairman of the WSH Council-led National Crane Safety Taskforce. He said, “Following extensive discussions with lorry crane stakeholders, we have found that training the operators will be pivotal to improving safety standards as they are primarily the ones in charge of the lorry cranes on-site. Crane accidents have potential risk on the lives of the public, workers and the crane operators. In order to give the industry sufficient time  to comply, lorry crane operators have nearly two years till 1 September 2013 to be  certified. However, we urge all lorry crane companies to send their operators for  training early so that they are better equipped to handle any lifting operations safely.”

Supporting this latest move is Mr Dave Ng, Honorary Auditor of the Singapore Cranes Association. Mr Ng said, “We have reviewed the ways we can enhance the safety of lorry crane operations. While we advocate the use of safe work procedures and the lifting plan, it was clear that the operators’ capability to perform the work safely was critical. Hence, the move to train the operators is the right thing to do.

Given the large numbers, it is good that we have been given almost two years to get  our operators trained.”


Lorry Crane Operator Course

Legal Requirement Under the Workplace Safety and Health Act Chapter 354A, Workplace Safety and Health (Operation of Cranes) Regulations 2011 Part 2 (General Provisions), states that:

4. No person shall operate a lorry loader unless –
he has successfully completed a training course, acceptable to the Commissioner, on the operation of a lorry loader; if required by the Commissioner, he attends re-training on the operation of a lorry loader and successfully com pletes such re-training; and
if required by the Commissioner, he produces a current medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner certifying that he is medically fit to operate a lorry loader

5. It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no person is allowed to operate a lorry loader unless the person satisfies the requirements referred to in paragraph 4.


Lorry Crane Operator Course Objectives

To meet the legislative requirements for safe use of lorry crane
To fulfill the duties and responsibilities of lifting operators
To learn about the principal components of a lorry crane
To recognise lorry crane operational hazards and implement control measures
To study about pre-lifting inspection requirements in lifting accessories
on a lorry crane
To understand more about the selection of appropriate rigging equipment
To learn how to estimate load and determine centre of gravity
To detect ground condition and proximity hazards
To learn how to set operational outrigger
To master safe loading / unloading, lifting and placing of materials
techniques using lorry crane
To learn about the factors affecting lifting capacity and interpretation of
load chart
To receive training on how to respond to lifting accidents and emergencies

Friday, May 11, 2012

Workplace Safety And Health Resources|Workplace Safety And Health Blog|: How To Get Your Certified As WSHO

Workplace Safety And Health Resources|Workplace Safety And Health Blog|: How To Get Your Certified As WSHO: With the implementation of new WSH legal framework in Singapore, more and more companies are seeking out for WSHO to help them better mana...

How To Get Your Certified As WSHO

With the implementation of new WSH legal framework in Singapore, more and more companies are seeking out for WSHO to help them better managed their workplace safety and health and this indirectly creates more jobs for the WSH Professionals

Do you have the intention to develop your career in the field of Workplace Safety Management?
And if you do, here are the progression path  for a WSH professional.


And if your ultimate goal is to get yourself certified as WSHO, here are some quick guide to help you







Workplace Safety And Health Resources|Workplace Safety And Health Blog|: Regulatory Programme

Workplace Safety And Health Resources|Workplace Safety And Health Blog|: Regulatory Programme: Asbestos Control Programme The Asbestos Control Programme aims to eliminate asbestos-related diseases over the long term through progres...

Thursday, May 10, 2012

Regulatory Programme

Asbestos Control Programme

The Asbestos Control Programme aims to eliminate asbestos-related diseases over the long term through progressive elimination of asbestos use, and the minimisation of exposure during the use and removal, and management of asbestos in buildings. Target processes include work involving removal and abatement of asbestos in buildings, vessels and other premises.
The programme involves
  • strengthening the legislative requirements for asbestos removal work
  • introducing a licensing scheme for asbestos removal contractors
  • raising awareness and capability building; engagement and enforcement
MOM works with the Building Control Authority, National Environment Agency and other relevant stakeholders in implementing the programme.

Business Under Surveillance (BUS)

The Business Under Surveillance (BUS) Programme is a systemic intervention tool to regulate poor performing companies to focus on developing and implementing a robust safety and health management system to improve their WSH performance.
This programme is divided into two phases – the Assessment and the Surveillance phase. In the Assessment phase, companies who have had fatal accidents, demonstrated poor WSH management (such as poor site conditions that result in Stop Work Orders) or have had accumulate a number of demerit points would typically be considered for entry into the BUS programme. A thorough review of the implementation of the risk assessment and the strength of the management system would be conducted. If the company fails the assessment, they will be subjected to close surveillance.
In the Surveillance phase, OSHD requires the company's management to develop and commit to a comprehensive and sustainable Action Plan. The company is held accountable to their proposed Action Plan and reports the implementation progress on a regular basis to OSHD. In addition, inspections are carried out frequently by the OSHD Surveillance Branch to verify the progress made. The company will exit from the programme upon demonstrating significant improvement in its WSH performance and management.

Cluster operations

Cluster Operations (COPS) is a workplace inspection programme where selected cluster of workplaces are pre-announced on this website before the inspections take place. This is to encourage affected companies to take the initiative to improve safety and health standards within their workplace prior to MOM's inspections. Links to online guidelines, technical advisories and compliance assistance tools will be provided to assist companies in their preparation for the workplace inspections.

In certain clusters of workplaces, upstream stakeholders of these workplaces (e.g. client of affected companies) will also be engaged to solicit improvements in workplace safety standards within the cluster.

Outcomes of the workplace inspections conducted and common contraventions detected will be shared after each operations, to facilitate companies in the detection and rectification of weak areas within their workplaces.
Upcoming Cluster Operations are published as highlights in the Workplace Safety and Health section.

Confined Space Management Programme

The Confined Space Management Programme aims to enhance confined space hazard management and prevent deaths from chemical poisoning and asphyxiation during confined space work and rescue operations. Iso-tank operations in logistics, shipbuilding and ship-repairing industries, manhole works and other workplaces with confined space hazards are required to implement a confined space management programme consisting of the following elements: hazard identification, evaluation and control, entry-permit system, atmospheric testing and monitoring, ventilation and emergency response.
Initiatives include:
  • identification of workplaces with confined space hazards
  • raising awareness and capability building for confined space management
  • implementing effective in-plant confined space programmes

Hazardous Chemical Management Programme

The Hazardous Chemical Management Programme covers chemical manufacturers and workplaces using hazardous chemicals. The objectives of the programme are to prevent and control chemical hazards and protect persons at work against such hazards.
Companies under the programme are required to implement an in-plant chemical management programme consisting of the following key elements: hazard communication (labelling and safety data sheet), training and education, hazard assessment and control (with respect to storage, handling and disposal of chemicals), personal protection equipment, workplace monitoring, medical surveillance, and emergency response.
The programme entails
  • identification, evaluation and control of chemical hazards
  • review of exposure limits
  • regular monitoring or assessment of chemical exposure
Results of regular exposure monitoring are submitted to MOM and captured in our chemical exposure database. Where exposure levels are excessive, intervention actions will be taken.

Noise Induced Deafness Prevention Programme

The NID Prevention Programme (NIDPP) aims to reduce the incidence of Noise-induced Deafness (NID). The target of this programme includes workplaces with noise hazards in the manufacturing, shipbuilding/ship-repairing and construction sector, through a series of outreach and enforcement activities. Key elements of the in-plant HCP include noise monitoring, noise control, hearing protection, audiometric examinations and health education.
Initiatives under this programme include:
  • strengthening legislative requirements
  • identifying noisy workplaces for surveillance and control
  • managing noise hazards at workplaces through the implementation of in-plant Hearing Conservation Programme (HCP)
  • raising awareness and building capability in noise hazard management

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

Environmental Legislation Associated with Development of Industrial Building

Pollution Control

The Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA) & Regulations provide for and
regulate the installation, operation and maintenance of the industrial plant and pollution
control facilities. It also regulates the limits for emission of air impurities into atmosphere,
discharge of wastewater into watercourse and the factory boundary noise. The EPMA
requires a Clearance Certificate to be obtained before the commencement of any industrial
plant work and a Compliance Certificate to be obtained after satisfactory completion of any
industrial plant work.

Environmental Health


The Environmental Public Health Act and Regulations provides for and regulates the
installation, operation and maintenance of the solid waste management facilities in
developments.

Sewerage

The Sewerage and Drainage Act (SDA) provides for and regulates the construction,
maintenance and improvement of sewerage system. It also regulates the discharge of
sewage and trade effluent and for matters connected therewith.

The Sewerage and Drainage Act requires:
a) Clearance Certificate to be obtained before the commencement of any sewerage
and sanitary works
b) Compliance Certificate to be obtained upon satisfactory completion of any sewerage
and sanitary works
c) Approval to be obtained before carrying out any building/structure works, piling
works or temporary structure works over, across or adjacent to any sewer or
sewerage system
d) Approval to be obtained before the discharge of any trade effluent into public
sewers

Drainage

The construction, maintenance, improvement and safeguard of land drainage systems are
regulated under Sewerage and Drainage Act (SDA) and the Sewerage and Drainage (Surface
Water Drainage).

Environment Control
 
The Sewerage and Drainage Act requires:
a) Clearance Certificate to be obtained before the commencement of any storm water
drainage works, or to erect or place any structures or object in, above or across any
drain or drainage reserve
b) Compliance Certificate to be obtained upon satisfactory completion of any storm
water drainage works, erection or placement of any structures or object in, above or
across any drain or drainage reserve
c) Approval to be obtained before carrying out any temporary structure works/services
over, across or adjacent to any drain or storm water drainage system
d) Approval to be obtained before construction of any works for taking or intercepting
water from any place or sea, within the territorial limits of Singapore
Who are the parties involved?
a) Developer appoints a process consultant or Qualified Persons (QP- Registered
Architect or Professional Engineer) to prepare and submit the necessary applications
to obtain Industrial Allocation clearance, Development Control clearance, Building
Plan clearance certificates, Temporary Occupation Permit clearance and Certificate
for Statutory Completion clearance (Compliance Certificate)
b) QP shall also supervise, inspect the building works and certify completion of building
works in accordance to the environmental codes

LEGISLATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY FOR BUILDINGS


As Singapore aspires to be a leading global city in environmental sustainability, there is scope to further improve on energy efficiency requirements in buildings, to address the impact of climate change. While the focus on energy efficiency remains important, a more holistic approach was taken to encourage environmental friendliness in buildings to ensure that environmental quality and comfort are not compromised. Among other initiatives, BCA has enhanced the Building Control Act and put in place the Building Control (Environmental Sustainability) Regulations, to require a minimum environmental sustainability standard that is equivalent to the Green Mark Certified Level for new buildings and existing ones that undergo major retrofitting. This regulation took effect from 15 Apr 2008. Projects that are submitted for URA planning permission on or after 15 Apr 2008 will be subject to this requirement.
SCOPE AND DETAILS

  • All new building works with gross floor area of 2000 m2 or more ;
  • Additions or extensions to existing buildings which involve increasing gross floor area of the existing buildings by 2000 m2 or more;
  • Building works which involve major retrofitting to existing buildings with existing gross floor area of 2000 m2 or more.
Alteration to existing buildings which does not involve major retrofitting works is not subject to this requirement. 

The requirements on environmental sustainability of buildings will be integrated with the building plan process. The qualified person who submits the building plan and the other appropriate practitioners will be responsible for assessing and scoring the building works under their charge using the criteria and scoring methodology spelled out in the Code.

The minimum environmental sustainability standard will be revised with effect from 1 Dec 2010.  The compliance with the respective environmental sustainability standards will be based on the first submission date for URA planning permission as stated in the table below.

1st submission date for URA planning permission
Compliance Standard
From 15 Apr 2008 to 30 Nov 2010
Code for Environmental Sustainability for  Buildings, 1st Edition, Apr 2008 issue
From 1 Dec 2010 and onwards
Code for Environmental Sustainability for  Buildings, 2nd Edition, Aug 2010 issue

Here are the administrative details
Green Mark (GM) e-Filing System
For submission in compliance with BC (Environmental Sustainability) Regulations 2008
GM submission at BP stage
For Projects with 1st submission date to URA planning permission on or after 1st Dec 2010
Green Mark score calculations for residential buildings

Green Mark score calculations for non-residential buildings

Note : These forms are to be generated from Green Mark (GM)
e-filing system.
For Projects with 1st submission date to URA planning permission from
15 Apr 2008 to
30 Nov 2010
Green Mark score calculations for residential buildings

Green Mark score calculations for non-residential buildings

Note : These forms are to be generated from Green Mark (GM)
e-filing system.
As-built GM submission before TOP stage
For Projects with 1st submission date to URA planning permission on or after 1st Dec 2010
As-built Green Mark score calculations for residential buildings

As-built Green Mark score calculations for non-residential buildings

Note : These forms are to be generated from Green Mark (GM)
e-filing system.
For Projects with 1st submission date to URA planning permission from
15 Apr 2008 to
30 Nov 2010
As-built Green Mark score calculations for residential buildings

As-built Green Mark score calculations for non-residential buildings

Note : These forms are to be generated from Green Mark (GM)
e-filing system.
 
MANDATORY HIGHER GREEN MARK STANDARD FOR GOVERNMENT LAND SALES SITES IN SELECTED STRATEGIC AREAS
To maximise the potential for cost-effective energy savings in our built environment, it was announced in BCA’s 2nd Green Building Masterplan in 2009 that projects developed on land sold under the Government Land Sales (GLS) Programme sites in the selected strategic areas will be subject to higher Green Mark Standards.
 
SCOPE AND DETAILS
This requirement will apply to buildings works related to any building on land sold on or after 5 May 2010 under the Government Land Sales Programme in selected strategic areas. The building works subject to this requirement are to be designed to meet the prescribed Green Mark Certification as shown in the following table.
Selected Strategic Areas Exact Location to refer to the Building Control (Environmental Sustainability ) Regulations 2008 Requirements for building wholly or partly within area that is on land sold under the Government Land Sales Programme
Marina Bay Green Mark Platinum Rating
Downtown Core – including areas within the CBD located next to Marina Bay Green Mark GoldPlus Rating
Jurong Lake District Green Mark GoldPlus Rating
Kallang Riverside Green Mark GoldPlus Rating
Paya Lebar Central Green Mark GoldPlus Rating


For building works that are subject to this requirement, the qualified person and appropriate practitioners need not submit their declarations of the Green Mark scores along with the building plan submission. Instead, the qualified person should ensure that, prior to the building plan submission, an application is made to BCA for the project to be assessed certified under the certification standards approved by the Commissioner of Building Control. Upon completion of the building works, the qualified person should submit the Green Mark Certificate showing the Green Mark Certification rating achieved for the project along with his application for a temporary occupation permit (TOP) or certificate of statutory completion (CSC). It is important to note that the prescribed Green Mark Certification rating for the building has to be obtained before a TOP/ CSC can be granted.
The certification standard will be revised from 1 Dec 2010 in tandem with the changes in the Green Mark Criteria.  The compliance with the respective certification standards will be based on the tender award letter issued by URA to the successful developer under the Government Land Sales (GLS) programmes for the selected strategic areas and as stated in the table below.
Date of Tender Closed under the GLS programmes
Compliance Standard
From 5 May 2010 to 30 Nov 2010
BCA Green Mark Certification Standards for New Building, GM Version 3.0, May 2010 issue
From 1 Dec 2010 and onwards
BCA Green Mark Certification Standards for New Building, GM Version 4.0, Aug 2010 issue


Link to more info on BCA Green Mark Scheme :
http://bca.gov.sg/GreenMark/green_mark_buildings.html

Link to the application form for certification :
http://www.bca.gov.sg/GreenMark/others/Form.pdf

Clarifications
For any queries pertaining to the new requirements, please contact our officers :
Subject matter
Name
Email
Contact No.
Projects under GLS / BP Submission requirement
BP Hotline
63257159
Green Mark Related /Submission requirement

Grace Cheok
63257588
Leow Yock Keng
63255075
Green Mark e-Filing System
Polly Chiam
63255026

Thursday, May 3, 2012

MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN SINGAPORE


MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN SINGAPORE


1 Introduction


1.1 Wastes may be defined as materials which no longer can be used for the purposes they were intended for originally. Toxic industrial wastes are wastes which by their nature and quality may be potentially detrimental to human health and/or the environment and which require special management, treatment and disposal.

1.2 In view of Singapore’s small land area with limited land and water resources, the siting of industries has to be carefully planned and managed. In addition, industries are required to design their manufacturing processes and provide pollution control facilities to comply with pollution control requirements on emission of air pollutants, discharge of industrial effluent, management of hazardous substances and toxic industrial wastes.

1.3 There are currently more than 2,000 companies in Singapore which handle or use hazardous chemicals. The use of these chemicals generates a wide variety of toxic industrial wastes. The main types are spent acids, spent solvents, spent etchants, waste oil and other waste sludge.

2 Strategy for Control of Toxic Industrial Wastes
2.1 The key elements in Singapore’s strategy to control toxic industrial wastes and ensure their safe treatment and disposal are as follows:
(i) avoid generation of intractable wastes;
(ii) encourage waste minimisation;
(iii) encourage waste reuse, recovery and recycling;
(iv) regulate collection, treatment and disposal;
(v) monitor and audit collection, treatment and disposal; and
(vi) promote and support educational and training programmes.
2.2 All new industrial developments are screened by PCD at the planning stage. One of the key areas checked in this screening
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process is the generation and disposal of wastes from proposed industrial developments. PCD will approve the proposed industrial development only if the wastes generated could be safely disposed of in Singapore. This avoids the generation of intractable wastes that cannot be safely disposed of in Singapore.
2.3 In addition, PCD will require industries to use processes that minimise waste generation or facilitates the reuse, recovery and recycling of the wastes. Industries also need to incorporate measures into the design of their facilities to ensure wastes generated can be properly handled and managed. At the building plan stage, checks are made to ensure that these measures are incorporated into the design of the plants.
2.4 PCD has encouraged the setting up of specialised waste recycling, treatment, and disposal plants. There are currently about 100 such plants in Singapore, treating and recycling a wide range of toxic industrial wastes. Some of the toxic industrial wastes collected and recycled by these plants for reuse are discussed in Section 5.
2.5 The setting up of specialised waste recycling, treatment and disposal plants serve to help industries, especially the smaller companies, which may generate small quantities of special wastes but find it impractical or uneconomical to install, operate and maintain a waste treatment facility because of cost, lack of expertise or space constraint.
2.6 The collection, recycling, treatment and disposal of toxic industrial wastes are controlled under the Environmental Public Health Act (EPHA) and the Environmental Public Health (Toxic Industrial Waste) Regulations (TIWR).

3 The Environmental Public Health (Toxic Industrial Waste) Regulations (TIWR)
3.1 The control on the import, sale, supply, receipt, transport, treatment and disposal of toxic industrial (hazardous) wastes are regulated under the TIWR. Industrial wastes controlled under the TIWR are listed in the Schedule of the Regulations as waste streams from specific industrial activities, wastes with specified toxic components and as specific categories of wastes. The list includes spent acids, alkalis, wastes containing gallium arsenide, spent etching solutions containing copper from printed circuit board manufacturing, etc. The list is at the Annex.
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3.2 In order to facilitate controls and proper management, the functions and responsibilities of key persons involved in handling of the toxic industrial wastes are clearly delineated in the TIWR. The key persons include the following:
(a) Generator of wastes
(b) Collector
(c) Carrier or transporter
(d) Driver
3.3 The generator will have to treat the wastes in an approved in-house waste treatment plant and dispose of the residues, if any, at NEA sanitary landfill site. Alternatively, the generator can engage a licensed toxic industrial waste collector to collect his wastes for treatment and disposal.
3.4 A toxic industrial waste collector is a person who receives toxic industrial wastes for storage, reprocessing, treatment and disposal. He has to obtain a licence from PCD to collect specific toxic industrial wastes that are listed in his licence and confine his wastes storage and treatment activities to approved premises and facilities.
3.5 Written transport approval from PCD is also required for the transportation of wastes in quantities which exceed those specified in the TIWR. The responsibilities of the following key persons in the transportation are clearly defined in the TIWR:
(a) Consignor - the person who presents a consignment of controlled wastes for transport. The consignor can be either the generator or the licensed collector. Transport approval shall be obtained from PCD to transport the wastes.
(b) Carrier - the person who undertakes the transport of the controlled wastes. He can either be the generator, the licensed collector or the transport company engaged by either one of them.
(c) Consignee - the person who receives the controlled wastes. He is usually the licensed collector.
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(d) Driver - the driver of the vehicle transporting the toxic industrial wastes.
3.6 To prevent illegal dumping and disposal of toxic industrial wastes, the movement of every consignment of wastes from a generator through a carrier to a collector is tracked by means of an Internet-based electronic submission of consignment note system (known as the e-Tracking System).

4 Waste Minimisation
4.1 The Waste and Resource Management Department (WRMD) of NEA is to formulate policies to promote and spearhead waste minimisation in Singapore. WRMD develops, promotes and oversees the implementation of programmes on waste minimisation and recycling. It also carries out studies to enhance waste recycling.
4.2 WRMD together with PCD works closely with the industries to promote waste minimization. Some of the activities promoted by WRMD and PCD are as follows:
(a) Waste Exchange
NEA helps to link industries for exchange of wastes. Waste to one company may be a resource to another. For example, waste alkali generated by one company could be used by another company to neutralise the acidic wastes. This would minimise the ultimate quantity of wastes to be disposed of.
(b) Use of Clean Technology
At the planning consultation stage, NEA advises and encourages industries to use clean technologies which minimise waste generation.
(c) Reuse and Recycling
NEA encourages the recycling and reuse of wastes and assists in the setting up of waste recycling plants. Some of the wastes that are being recycled and reused in Singapore are discussed in Section 6.
(d) Waste Audit
NEA encourages those industries that generate large quantities of wastes to carry out waste audit. A waste audit is designed to achieve maximum resource optimisation and improved process performance. The audit enables one to take a comprehensive look at the process to understand the material flows and to focus on areas where waste reductions are possible. The waste audit can be carried out to cover a complete process or to concentrate on a selection of unit operations within a process. There are competent consultants in Singapore to carry out such waste audit for industries.

5 Some Practices Adopted for Recycling and Reuse of Wastes
5.1 A large amount of industrial wastes generated and collected in Singapore by the licensed collectors are either recycled, reused or have valuable components extracted and recovered before disposal. Such wastes include spent solvents, spent etchants and photographic wastes.
5.2 Spent solvents are generated by a wide range of industries. Each year about 50,000 m3 of spent solvents are collected by the licensed collectors. The spent solvents collected include acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride and toluene. About 22,500 m3 of spent solvents are recovered by distillation. The practice adopted by these collectors is usually batch (differential) distillation. The equipment comprises a still to vapourise the solvents, a condenser to condense the vapours and collecting vessels to collect the condensate and the residues. The recovered solvents are sold for reuse by industries. The remaining 27,500 m3 of spent solvents that could not be recovered are used as supplementary fuel for toxic waste incinerators.
5.3 Printing and film processing activities generate photographic wastes such as spent fixers and bleaches. Each year about 1,000 m3 of such wastes are collected and treated. These wastes contain silver in solution. An effective and commercially viable method, the electrolytic extraction process, is used to recover the silver. In this process, carbon is used as the anode and a stainless steel drum as the cathode. The silver is deposited on the stainless steel drum. The extracted silver has a purity of more than 90 %. The remaining liquid from the electrolysis process is treated and neutralised in a waste water treatment plant before discharge into the sewers.
5.4 Etching is an important process used in the electronics industry especially in the manufacture of the printed circuit boards. The process generates spent etchants such as cupric chloride etchants,
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ferric chloride etchants and ammonia etchants. Each year about 23,000 m3 of spent etchants are generated and treated in Singapore. Spent ferric chloride etchants are regenerated using scrap iron and chlorine. In this process, scrap iron is first added to the spent etchant and the copper sludge that precipitates out is collected and sold as a valuable by product. The etchant is next regenerated by passing chlorine through it. The regenerated etchant is sold for reuse.
6 Monitoring And Enforcement
6.1 Any control system, no matter how well crafted will not be effective without rigorous enforcement. Enforcement will ensure the minority of companies that violate the controls are penalised accordingly and would not gain unfairly from their violations. Without rigorous enforcement, companies that originally comply with the controls may become complacent and pay less attention and effort to ensure their operations continue to be safely managed.
6.2 Monthly checks are conducted on premises of toxic industrial waste collectors and the records are audited to ensure requirements on collection, storage, treatment and disposal of toxic wastes are complied with.
7 Transboundary Movements Of Hazardous Wastes
7.1 Before acceding to the Basel Convention, Singapore had already adopted and practised the principles of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and its Disposal in controlling the export, import and transit of toxic industrial wastes or hazardous wastes.
7.2 Singapore acceded to the Basel Convention on 2 Jan 96 and on 16 Mar 98 enacted The Hazardous Waste (Control of Export, Import and Transit) Act and its Regulations to strengthen the control on export, import and transit of hazardous wastes in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Basel Convention.
7.3 Under the Hazardous Waste Act and its Regulations, any person who wishes to export, import or transit hazardous wastes shall obtain a permit from PCD. PCD has adopted the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure of the Basel Convention in granting any permit for the export, import or transit of hazardous wastes.
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8 Training
8.1 NEA collaborates with local institutions and trade associations such as the universities, the Singapore Chemical Industry Council, the Society for Loss Prevention in the Oil, Chemical and Process Industries, etc, to organise and conduct workshops, conferences and seminars on the safe handling and disposal of toxic industrial wastes for local industries.
8.2 NEA also works together with the Occupational Safety and Health Division of the Ministry of Manpower to conduct training courses on safe practices on handling of toxic industrial wastes for workers in the industries.
9 Conclusion
9.1 In addition to regulatory controls, the co-operation of industries in ensuring that toxic industrial wastes are properly managed and disposed of in Singapore is essential. NEA will continue to work with industry and institutions in promoting better management and disposal of toxic industrial wastes through joint research and educational programmes.
9.2 NEA will continue to participate in international events on the Basel Convention and adopt and practise the principles of Basel Convention in dealing with transboundary movements of toxic industrial wastes.
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ANNEX
LIST OF TOXIC INDUSTRIAL WASTES CONTROLLED UNDER THE
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH (TOXIC INDUSTRIAL WASTE) REGULATIONS
List of Toxic Industrial Wastes
Acids
1 Spent inorganic acids.
Eg. hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, boric acid and pickling acid.
2 Spent organic acids.
Eg. acetic acid, formic acid, benzoic acid and sulphonic acid
Alkali
1 Spent alkaline solutions
2 Spent ammoniacal solutions
3 Metal hydroxide sludges and oxide sludges
Antimony and its Compounds
4 Spent antimony potassium tartrate
Arsenic and its Compounds
1 Timber preservative residues containing arsenic
2 Wastes containing gallium arsenide
Asbestos
1 Asbestos wastes from
Chromium Compounds
1 Plating effluent and residues containing chromium
2 Timber preservative residues containing chromium
3 Spent and aqueous solutions containing chromic compounds
4 Tannery effluent and residues containing chromium
Copper Compounds
1 Plating effluent and residues containing copper
2 Spent etching solutions containing copper from printed circuit board manufacturing
3 Timber preservative residues containing copper
Cyanides
1 Plating effluent and residues containing cyanides
2 Heat treatment residues containing cyanides
3 Spent quenching oils containing
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asbestos/cement manufacturing processes
2 Empty sacks/bags which have contained loose asbestos fibre
3 Asbestos wastes generated from industrial activity, demolition, renovation and delagging works and ship repairing
Cadmium and its Compounds
1 Plating effluent and residues containing cadmium
2 Wastes containing cadmium from Ni/Cd battery manufacturing
cyanides
4 Spent processing solutions containing cyanides from photographic processing
Fluoride Compounds
1 Timber preservative residues containing fluorides
2 Spent ammonium bi-fluoride
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ANNEX (CONT'D)
List of Toxic Industrial Wastes
Isocyanates
1 Spent di-isocyanates.
Eg. toluene di-isocyanate (TDI) and
methylene di-isocyanate (MDI) from
polyurethane foam-making process
Laboratory Wastes
1 Obsolete laboratory chemicals
2 Toxic chemical wastes from chemical analysis
Lead Compounds
1 Sludges containing lead oxide/sulphate
2 Spent organo-lead compounds.
Eg. tetraethyllead (TEL) and
tetramethyllead (TML)
3 Waste lead-acid batteries, whole or crushed
Mercury and its Compounds
1 Effluent, residues or sludges containing mercury from chlor-alkali industry
2 Wastes containing mercury from equipment manufacturing involving the use of metal mercury
3 Spent catalysts from chemical processes containing mercury
4 Spent organo-mercury compounds
Organic Compounds containing Halogen
1 Spent halogenated organic solvents.
Eg. trichloroethylene, 111-trichloroethane, perchloroethylene, methylene chloride
tetra-chloromethane and
112-trichloro-122-trifluoroethane
2 Residues from recovery of halogenated
organic solvents
3 Packaging materials or residues containing chlorobenzenes and/or chlorophenols and
their salts
Organic Compounds not containing Halogen
1 Spent non-halogenated organic solvents.
Eg. benzene, toluene, xylene, turpentine, petroleum, thinner, kerosene, methanol, ethanol, isobutanol, isopropanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, isopropyl ether, diethyl ether, hexane, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide
2 Residue from recovery of non-halogenated organic solvents
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Metal Catalysts
1 Spent metal catalysts from chemical
processes and petroleum refining.
Eg. Catalysts containing chromium cobalt
Nickel Compounds
1 Plating effluent and residues containing nickel
Other Wastes
1 Obsolete/abandoned chemicals and pesticides from storage, manufacturing and trading activities
2 Used containers, bags and process equipment contaminated by chemicals and pesticides from storage, manufacturing and trading activities
3 Wastes/residues containing unreacted monomers. Eg. vinyl chloride and styrene monomers, from polymer manufacturing processes
4 Tar residues from distilling and tarry materials from refining
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ANNEX (CONT'D)
List of Toxic Industrial Wastes
5 Wastes from toxic waste treatment processes. Eg. wastes and residues from solidification, fixation and incineration processes
6 Wastes from toxic chemical drums and tank cleaning activities
7 Chemical and oil slops from ship tankers
8 Wastes from the production, formulation and use of resins, latex, plasticisers, glues/adhesives containing solvents and other contaminants.
9 Wastes from the production, formulation and use of inks, dyes, pigments, paints, lacquers, varnish containing organic solvents, heavy metals or biocides.
10 Solid wastes and sludges or obsolete/off specification materials not categorised elsewhere in the Schedule and failing the NEA’s landfill disposal criteria
Pathogenic Wastes
1 Pathogenic wastes from hospitals
2 Pathogenic wastes from healthcare and research institutions, clinics and laboratories
Pharmaceutical Wastes
1 Pharmaceutical wastes comprising antineoplastic agents, antibiotics,
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
1 All waste materials containing PVC. Eg. PVC insulated wires, PVC pipes and trunking, PVC parts, PVC upholstery and PVC resins
Silver Compounds
1 Spent processing solutions containing silver from photographic processing
Used, Contaminated Oil
1 Used mineral, lubricating and hydraulic oil from machine cylinders, turbines, switch gears and transformers
2 Spent motor oils from petrol and
diesel engines
3 Spent quenching oil from metal hardening
4 Oil recovered from solvent degreasers
5 Spent oil water emulsions.
Eg. Spent coolants from metal
Working industries
6 Oil water mixtures (mainly oil).
Eg. Oily ballast water from ship tankers
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vaccines and other immunological products, controlled drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Act (Cap. 185) and pharmaceutical wastes containing arsenics, cyanides and heavy metals and their salts
Phenolic Compounds
1 Sludges/residues from paint stripping using chemicals containing phenols
2 Residues containing unreacted phenol and formaldehyde from adhesive industry
Polychlorinated Bi-phenyl (PCB) including Polychlorinated Ter-phenyl (PCT)
1 Spent transformer oil containing PCB
and/or PCT
2 Rectrofilled transformer contaminated
with PCB and/or PCT
3 Electrical equipment and parts containing or contaminated with PCB and/or PCT.
Eg. capacitors and transformers
4 Containers and all waste materials contaminated with PCB and/or PCT
7 Oil and sludge from oil interceptors
8 Tanker sludges and oil sludges/ residues from storage tanks
9 Oil sludges containing acid from recovery and recycling of used oil
Zinc Compounds
1 Plating effluent and residues containing zinc

Management of Hazardous Substances


Management of Hazardous Substances

1 INTRODUCTION
Singapore is an island of about 620 square kilometres in area. The average population density in Singapore is about 4,000 people per square kilometre. Such high population densities make it imperative for hazardous substances to be controlled so that public exposure to accidental release is, if not avoided, minimised.
In addition, large parts of Singapore are used as water catchment areas. It is necessary to ensure that chemical storage facilities and transport avoid such areas as far as possible. This is to prevent pollution and to protect drinking water sources against contamination.
The awareness of the hazards or risks posed to both human health and the environment from the manufacturing, storage, transport, and use of hazardous chemicals has come about in recent years as a result of a number of reported major industrial accidents in both developed and the developing countries. Two well known catastrophic incidents occurred in the mid 1980s in the less developed countries. These were the release of toxic methyl isocyanate from a pesticide factory in Bhopal, India and the explosions and fires at an LPG installation in Mexico. Both incidents caused great losses of lives.
In Singapore, the Government has implemented measures to control and minimise the risks from industrial developments handling large quantities of hazardous substances not only to protect workers within the hazardous plants but also the general public and the environment.
Pollution Control Department (PCD) of the National Environment Agency controls toxic and environmentally hazardous chemicals under The Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA) and The Environmental Protection and Management (Hazardous Substances) Regulations.
Flammable petroleum products in Singapore are controlled under the Fire Safety Act by the Fire Safety & Shelter Department (FSSD) of the Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF).
Radioactive substances are controlled by the Centre for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Science (CRPNS).
2 POLLUTION CONTROL DEPARTMENT
CONTROL STRATEGIES
The hazardous chemicals controlled by PCD (see Table 1) are those that:
  • Pose a mass-disaster potential
  • Are highly toxic and polluting
  • Generate wastes which cannot be safely and adequately disposed of
In Singapore, the control of hazardous chemicals are implemented mainly through the following measures:
  • Planning control
  • Licensing control
  • Enforcement
PLANNING CONTROL
On new developments, PCD checks and ensures that new residential and industrial developments are properly sited and are compatible with surrounding land use. PCD also imposes environmental pollution control requirements to be incorporated into designs of developments to minimise pollution and to mitigate pollution impact on surrounding developments.
The Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) and Housing Development Board (HDB) are developing agencies for industrial land and premises and they consult PCD on the allocation of industrial premises. PCD assesses and evaluates the environmental impact of the proposed industries to ensure that they do not pose unmanageable health and safety hazards and pollution problems. A proposed industry will be allowed only if emissions of pollutants can comply with standards, wastes can be safely managed and properly disposed of, and the factory can be sited in a suitable industrial estate.
For major developments, PCD requires developers to carry out pollution control assessment for their proposals. Examples of major developments include industries involving the use or storage of hazardous chemicals in bulk quantities, port development, landfill site, etc. The study includes an assessment of all pollution impact on the environment and recommendation of measures to mitigate such impact. PCD will issue clearance to the proposed development only if its evaluation of the study reports confirms that pollution impact could be mitigated to acceptable levels.
In addition, PCD encourages industries to reuse, recycle and recover their by-products to minimise waste generation. Disposal of wastes by landfill is only used as a last resort. For proposed industrial developments, PCD also checks and ensures that clean technology is adopted in industrial processes to conserve resources, and minimise pollution.
After a proposed development has been granted planning approval, a developer can proceed to submit building plans to the Building Control Division (BCD) of the Public Works Department for approval. Under the current procedure on building plan approval, the developer is also required to submit building plans to technical departments including PCD for clearance on technical requirements. PCD checks the building plans of the development for compliance with technical requirements on environmental health, drainage, sewerage and pollution control. In addition, PCD also checks and ensures that pollution control measures are incorporated into the design of buildings.
After the completion of a development, PCD inspects it to ensure compliance with technical requirements before granting clearance to BCA for the issue of Temporary Occupation Permit (TOP)/Certificate of Statutory Completion (CSC) to the completed development.
Industries are required to apply for written permission, licence and permits from PCD before they can start operation.
LICENSING CONTROLS
Licensing controls are implemented under the Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA) and the Fire Safety Act. The licensing controls prevent unauthorised persons from handling such substances and ensure proper safeguards are taken at all times in the handling of the substances to prevent accidental releases and mitigate the adverse effects if they occur.
The following Licensing Controls over the import, transport, storage and use of hazardous substances are implemented under The Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA) and its Regulations:
Hazardous Substances Licence Control
Any person who wishes to import, sell or export any hazardous substance controlled under the Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA) must obtain a Licence.
A licence will be issued to a person if:
  • he could show proof that the Hazardous Substances will be stored safely in an approved location and in compliance with the storage requirements;
  • the use of the Hazardous Substances at his factory has been approved;
  • he has sat and passed the Management of Hazardous Substances Course conducted by Singapore Environment Institute (SEI); and
  • his academic qualification must be at least a technical diploma.
Hazardous Substances Permit Control
Any person who wishes to purchase, store and/or use any hazardous substance controlled under the Environmental Protection and Management (Hazardous Substances) Regulations must obtain a Permit.
A Permit will be issued to a person if:
  • he could show proof that the Hazardous Substances will be stored safely in an approved location and in compliance with the storage requirements;
  • the use of the Hazardous Substancesat his factory has been approved; and
  • he has declared that he has read and understood the Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA) and its Regulations.
The Licence/Permit application form is in Annex 9. In addition, the public can submit an electronic application for a Hazardous Substances Licence/Permit via the Internet. The Internet address is: http://app1.env.gov.sg/pcls/index.jsp
Transport Approval Control
Any person who wishes to transport any hazardous substance in quantities exceeding those specified in the Environmental Protection and Management (Hazardous Substances) Regulations (see Table 2) must obtain a Transport Approval. The limits varies from 0 kg for highly toxic chemicals such as organochlorines pesticides to 1000 kg for corrosives such as sulphuric acid.
A Transport Approval will be issued to a person if:
  • he holds a Licence to handle hazardous substances,
    he could show proof that the Hazardous Substances will be transported safely in compliance with the transportation requirements.
The licence holder can also submit an application for a Hazardous Substances Transport Approval via the internet.
Import Control
The most effective stage of control to ensure that all chemicals that enter Singapore can be and will be safely managed and handled at all times by approved competent licence holders is at the import stage.
Under the Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA), all import of Hazardous Substances listed under Second SchedueI of the Act must be approved by PCD. PCD will approve the import only if:
  • the Hazardous Substances are stated in the importer's licence,
  • there is a valid transport approval for the Hazardous Substances if the Hazardous Substances are to be transported out of the port.
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS UNDER LICENSING CONTROLS
The Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA) and its Regulations provide provisions for technical requirements to be imposed and complied with to ensure the safe management and handling of hazardous substances and to prevent an accident from occuring. These technical requirements are briefly described below.
Storage Requirements
The storage area should be sheltered; fenced-up; under lock and key; provided with kerb/hump all round the storage area; provided with fire protection and safety facilities; equipped with leak detection and warning devices and emergency scrubbing systems for storage of toxic gases.
The containers and storage tanks for the chemicals must be designed, manufactured and tested in accordance to an internationally-acceptable standards.
Hazardous Substances Licence and Permit holders must keep records of stock movements of the hazardous substances in accordance to the formats specified by PCD.
Adequate emergency action plan (see Annex 1) for dealing with any accidental release of chemicals must be drawn; with adequate stock of emergency equipment such as neutralising agent, adsorbents, oversized drums, protective gears, etc on kept on standby.
The implementation of a safety audit procedure is strongly encouraged to systematically identify and rectify weaknesses in the management system and practices of handling hazardous chemicals on a regular basis. Attached are the elements that should be audited and a list of consultants that are able to conduct such audits. (see Annex 2 & 3)
Transport Requirements
The containers and tankers used for bulk chemical transportation must be designed, manufactured and tested in accordance to an internationally-acceptable standards. The tankers must be certified by an approved third party inspection body to have met the stipulated standards (see Annex 4) before it can be used for transportation on Singapore roads.
The containers, tankers and vehicles must be properly labelled and carry appropiate hazard warning panels.
All transportation of controlled Hazardous Substances must strictly adhere to NEA's approved routes and must be between 9.00 am and 5.00 pm (Monday to Saturday excluding Sundays and Public Holidays).
All drivers must be trained in the handling of accidental spills and have attended the HazMat Driver Course conducted by SCDF's Civil Defence Academy or Singapore Port Institute (PSA Institute). Drivers renewing their Hazardous Material Transport Driver Permit (HTDP) are required to attend  the HazMat Driver's Course once every 2 years.
An adequate transportation emergency response plan (TERP) (see Annex 5) must also be put up to deal with any accidental release of the hazardous substances; with adequate stock of emergency equipment carried on the vehicles; such as chemical fire extinguisher, neutralising agent, adsorbents, oversized drums, protective gears, etc.
The consignor has to prepare a set of instructions for the carrier or transport company containing the following :-
  • information on the hazards of hazardous substance and safety precautions for its safe handling,
  • restrictions on the mode of transport and any necessary routing instructions,
  • special operational requirements for loading, unloading and transport or a statement that none is needed,
  • emergency response plan for transportation of the hazardous substances.
The carrier is required to obtain a set of the above instructions from the consignor and be conversant with the information it contained before proceeding to transport the consignment of the hazardous substance. The carrier must instruct and train his driver to ensure he understood the instructions given and is capable of carrying them out effectively. All documents pertaining to the chemicals transported (i.e. MSDS, transport approval and all emergency response, spill control and first aid equipment) should be kept within ready reach in event of emergency.
The consignor has to ensure that the instructions given to the carrier are accurate and sufficient to enable the carrier to carry out the transportation safely. The consignor is also required to be present on-site to personally deal with any chemical release during transportation.
Tanks of road tankers and tank containers used for transporting hazardous substances must meet approved standards of design, construction and testing. The design of the tanks must be reviewed and its construction surveyed by an approved third party inspection body. Once the third party inspection body is satisfied that the tank or tank container meets the approved standards, it will issue an initial inspection certificate. Under the approved standards, the tank and tank container must undergo periodic inspections.
The following standards are acceptable:
  • European Agreement of Road Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADR Standards)
  • United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN Standard)
  • International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code)
  • United States Code of Federal Regulations (US-DOT Standards)
The carrier needs to ensure that the vehicle and its tanks or containers are properly labelled in accordance to the Singapore Standards 286, 'Cautionary Labelling for Hazardous Substances'.
Labels are given for each class of hazardous substances and should be affixed on packagings and the vehicle. Road tankers and vehicles carrying hazardous substances in tank containers should have Emergency Information Panels. These are hazard warning panels containing the following emergency information :-
  • the appropriate class label and subsidiary risk label, if any
  • the correct technical name of the substance
  • the UN number of the substance
  • the Hazchem code number
  • contact numbers and names of company and emergency response authority
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN
Notwithstanding the controls and precautions taken, one cannot rule out the possibility of spillages and accidental releases of hazardous substances during transportation. With well drawn up emergency plans and proper training, such releases can be effectively contained and the damage to the environment and dangers to the health and safety of public minimised.
As a condition for granting licences and transport approvals, companies are required to put up emergency response plans.
The plan must be comprehensive and should contain the following key elements :-
  • notification procedures; (persons and authorities to contact and how to contact)
  • emergency procedures to contain and decontaminate spills; (immediate actions to be taken by driver/ground staff and actions to be taken by the company upon being informed)
  • emergency equipment to be carried on the vehicle and at base such as personal protection equipment, absorbents, neutralising solutions and salvage drums;
  • Material Safety Data Sheets of the hazardous substances transported.
The emergency response plan (ERP) shall be vetted and approved by SCDF before a Transport Approval may be issued.
Under the provisions of The Environmental Protection and Management (Hazardous Substances) Regulations, in the event of a chemical fire / release, the licence holders\transport approval holders are required to:
  • block off the area contaminated by the hazardous substance;
  • notify SCDF and the PCD;
  • take immediate action to have the area decontaminated and return the situation to normal.
ENFORCEMENT
Under the Act and its Rules, PCD officers are empowered to carry out regular inspection to check into the following aspects of controls:
  • Import, purchase and sale of Hazardous Substances
  • Storage
  • Transportation
  • Labelling
  • Maintaining and updating of records and sales documents
  • Ensure that all hazardous substances are safely disposed of
PCD officers are authorised to:
  • check and search premises;
  • extracts records and documents for investigations; and
  • conduct surprise checks on road tankers used for transportation on the road.
CONCLUSION
Hazardous chemicals have the potential to seriously endanger life and pollute the environment. Such chemicals have to be carefully managed at all time to prevent any accidental release. The successful implementation of a chemical safety programme requires co-operation from the industries to manage their hazardous chemicals properly and the support of the general public.