Thursday, May 3, 2012

Singapore Air Regulations and How Much You Know Them

Singapore Air Regulations and How Much You Know Them


Air Pollution

The Singapore National Environment Agency (NEA) regulates sources of air pollution, imposing minimum standards to ensure that emissions remain at acceptable levels to ensure that Singapore has clean and safe air. Emission standards are specified in the Environmental Protection and Management (Air Impurities) Regulations.

The main targets of NEA’s air pollution regulations are industrial operations, power generation plants and motor vehicles.

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emission Inventory

One of the major pollutants in Singapore is sulphur dioxide (SO2). The sources of SO2 emissions in Singapore include refineries, power stations, other industries, shipping and other minor sources such as vehicles, airport and construction activities. The 2010 SO2 emission inventory which is developed based on extensive emissions data collected from various sources in 2007 are shown in the table below.

Sources
Emitters
SO2 Emissions (tonnes)
Contribution of SO2 Emissions
Refineries
Shell
28,278

51%
Singapore Refining Company
26,754
ExxonMobil
22,421
Power Stations
Power Seraya
14,194

 
Tuas Power
18,382
27%
 
Senoko Power
7,754

Shipping
-
28,026
18%
Other Industries
 
Sembcorp Utilities and Terminals
748




3%

ExxonMobil Petrochemical
722
Linde Syngas
546
Mitsui Phenol
436
Petrochemical Corporation of Singapore
208
Invista
3
Other Fuel Oil Users
1,300
Diesel Users
46
Motor Vehicles
Petrol Vehicles
891
1%
Diesel Vehicles
101
Total

150,810
100%
Industrial Emissions

The NEA’s Source Emission Test Scheme for industries requires industries to conduct source emission test on their own or engage accredited consultants to do so on their behalf. This helps industries to monitor their air emissions regularly and to take measures, to ensure compliance with the prescribed air emission standards.
Motor Vehicles

Motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution. To control the emissions generated by motor vehicles, NEA regulates the type and quality of fuel that can be used in Singapore, and also sets minimum exhaust emission standards for all vehicles.

NEA takes stringent enforcement actions against smoky vehicles on the roads. Regulation 19 of the Environmental Protection and Management (Vehicular Emissions) Regulations stipulates that it is an offence for any person to use or permit the use of any smoky vehicle on the road.

It is the responsibility of every owner of a vehicle to ensure that the vehicle is in good condition before using it on the road. Besides carrying out proper servicing and maintenance of the vehicle regularly, the driver must also not overload the vehicle or drag the engine of the vehicle while driving.

For 2-stroke motorcycles, the cause of white smoke emissions is usually due to addition of lubricating oil in excess of the amount specified in the vehicle manufacturer’s manual.


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