Thursday, May 3, 2012

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT ACT (CHAPTER 94A, SECTION 77)


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT ACT
(CHAPTER 94A, SECTION 77)
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT (AIR IMPURITIES)
REGULATIONS

[1st January 2001]
Arrangement of Provisions
1 Citation
2 Dark smoke
3 Methods of smoke indication
4 Standards of concentration of air impurities
5 Testing procedures and requirements
6 Exemption
7 Penalties
THE SCHEDULE
STANDARDS OF CONCENTRATION OF AIR IMPURITIES
Actual Provisions
Citation
1. These Regulations may be cited as the Environmental Protection and Management (Air
Impurities) Regulations.
Dark smoke
2. —(1) For the purposes of section 11 of the Act, dark smoke includes smoke of any colour which
appears to the Director-General or any authorised officer —
(a) to be darker than shade No. 1 on the Ringelmann Chart;
History
G.N. NO.S
595/2000
->
2002
REVISEDEDITION
->
RG8
2008
REVISED
EDITION
Page 1 of 7
(b) when observed or recorded with such instrument or device as the Director-General may
approve, to be darker than shade No. 1 on the Ringelmann Chart; or
(c) to be of such opacity as to cause obscuration to a degree equivalent to smoke darker than
shade No. 1 on the Ringelmann Chart.
(2) Section 11 of the Act shall not apply to the emission of dark smoke from any chimney where —
(a) the emission of dark smoke is for a duration of less than 5 minutes in any period of one
hour in a day; and
(b) the total number of emissions of dark smoke from that chimney does not exceed 3 times a
day.
Methods of smoke indication
3. —(1) Every occupier of any industrial or trade premises in or on which any industrial plant or
fuel burning equipment is situated shall, if required by the Director-General to do so, provide or
install such instrument, equipment or device in or on the premises in accordance with paragraphs
(2) and (3).
(2) The instrument, equipment or device referred to in paragraph (1) must be of such type and
installed in such manner as will enable any person in charge of the industrial plant or fuel burning
equipment to readily ascertain at all times and without leaving the boiler room, furnace room or
control room, whether smoke is being discharged from any chimney on the industrial or trade
premises.
(3) The instrument, equipment or device may include one or more of the following:
(a) a smoke density indicator, recorder and alarm which will provide adequate indication in
the boiler room, furnace room or control room of the density of smoke being discharged
from the chimney;
(b) a closed circuit television installation with the receiver located in the boiler room, furnace
room or control room; or
(c) any other instrument, equipment or device approved by the Director-General.
Standards of concentration of air impurities
4. —(1) For the purposes of section 12 of the Act, the standards of concentration of air impurities
that must be complied with in the conduct of any trade, industry or process or the operation of any
fuel burning equipment or industrial plant shall be those specified in the Schedule.
(2) The concentration of any substance specified in the first column of the Schedule shall be
determined in accordance with such method as may be specified by or is acceptable to the Director-
General.
Testing procedures and requirements
5. —(1) For the purposes of section 12 of the Act, the Director-General may specify in any
particular case, the point at which the concentration of air impurities shall be measured.
(2) The point at which the concentration of air impurities shall be measured may be situated at —
(a) the fixed point of emission of any air impurities;
(b) the final point of emission of any air impurities; or
Page 2 of 7
(c) any other point in or along any flue, duct or chimney located at a place in the premises
other than the final point of emission of air impurities.
(3) Every owner or occupier of any industrial or trade premises shall —
(a) carry out such tests with respect to the emission of air impurities from and the
consumption of fuel in or on the premises as may be required by the Director-General;
(b) keep a register of all such tests, specifying the date, nature and results of each test; and
(c) ensure that such register is available for inspection by the Director-General or any
authorised officer at all reasonable times.
(4) Subject to paragraph (5), the results of all tests conducted on boilers, furnaces and incinerators
with respect to the emission of air impurities shall be expressed on the basis of flue gas containing
12% by volume of carbon dioxide.
(5) The results of all tests conducted on waste incinerators with respect to the emission of dioxins
and furans shall be expressed on the basis of flue gas containing 11% by volume of oxygen.
(6) Every owner or occupier of any industrial or trade premises shall, for the purposes of enabling
the Director-General or any authorised officer to exercise his powers under the Act —
(a) provide the Director-General or the authorised officer with access to such premises, any
part thereof and any control equipment, fuel burning equipment, industrial plant or chimney
on such premises, at all reasonable times and as often as the Director-General or the
authorised officer considers necessary; and
(b) provide the Director-General or the authorised officer with such assistance and facilities
as may reasonably be required by the Director-General or the authorised officer.
(7) The assistance and facilities referred to in paragraph (6) (b) shall include, in respect of each
chimney serving the premises, the provision of one or more inspection opening or openings and
such means of safe and adequate access for the purposes of enabling an authorised officer to
inspect and obtain representative samples of any discharge from the chimney.
(8) In this regulation —
"boiler" means any device in which water or other liquid is heated by any combustible
material;
"furnace" means any chamber, other than a boiler in which combustion takes place;
"incinerator" means any structure or part of a structure used in any trade, industry or process
to dispose of material by burning or heating with any form of energy;
"waste incinerator" means an incinerator which is used for the purposes of disposing of
municipal, industrial or hospital waste.
Exemption
6. —(1) Regulation 4 shall not apply to such industrial or trade premises and for such period
between 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2003 as the Director-General may determine.
(2) The Director-General may —
(a) require any industrial or trade premises referred to in paragraph (1) to comply with such
Page 3 of 7
other emission standards as he may specify; and
(b) if he considers it necessary, extend the period of exemption referred to in paragraph (1),
subject to such conditions as he may impose.
Penalties
7. —(1) Any person who contravenes regulation 3 or 5 (3) or (6) shall be guilty of an offence and
shall be liable —
(a) on the first conviction, to a fine not exceeding $10,000 and, in the case of a continuing
offence, to a further fine not exceeding $300 for every day or part thereof during which the
offence continues after conviction; and
(b) on the second or subsequent conviction to a fine not exceeding $20,000 and, in the case
of a continuing offence, to a further fine not exceeding $500 for every day or part thereof
during which the offence continues after conviction.
(2) Any offence under these Regulations may be compounded by the Director-General in
accordance with section 72 (1) of the Act.
THE SCHEDULE
Regulation 4
STANDARDS OF CONCENTRATION OF AIR IMPURITIES
1. The concentration of any substance specified in the first column emitted from any
operation in any trade, industry, process, fuel burning equipment or industrial plant specified
in the second column shall not at any point before admixture with air, smoke or other gases,
exceed the limits specified in the third column.
Substance
Trade, industry, process,
fuel burning equipment
or industrial plant
Emission limits
(a) Ammonia and ammonium
compounds
Any trade, industry or
process
76 mg/Nm3 expressed as
ammonia
(b) Antimony and its
compounds
Any trade, industry or
process
5 mg/Nm3 expressed as
antimony
(c) Arsenic and its
compounds
Any trade, industry or
process
1 mg/Nm3 expressed as
arsenic
(d) Benzene Any trade, industry or
process
5 mg/Nm3
(e) Cadmium and its
compounds
Any trade, industry or
process
3 mg/Nm3 expressed as
cadmium
(f) Carbon monoxide Any trade, industry,
process or fuel burning
equipment
625 mg/Nm3
(g) Chlorine Any trade, industry or
process
32 mg/Nm3
Page 4 of 7
(h) Copper and its
compounds
Any trade, industry or
process
5 mg/Nm3 expressed as
copper
(i) Dioxins and furans Any waste incinerator (i) 1.0 ng TEQ/Nm3 for
waste incinerators
commissioned before 1st
January 2001
(ii) 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3 for
waste incinerators
commissioned on or after 1st
January 2001
(j) Ethylene oxide Any trade, industry or
process
5 mg/Nm3
(k) Fluorine, hydrofluoric
acid or inorganic fluorine
compounds
Any trade, industry or
process
50 mg/Nm3 expressed as
hydrofluoric acid
(l) Formaldehyde Any trade, industry or
process
20 mg/Nm3
(m) Hydrogen chloride Any trade, industry or
process
200 mg/Nm3
(n) Hydrogen sulphide Any trade, industry or
process
7.6 mg/Nm3
(o) Lead and its compounds Any trade, industry or
process
5 mg/Nm3 expressed as lead
(p) Mercury and its
compounds
Any trade, industry or
process
3 mg/Nm3 expressed as
mercury
(q) Oxides of nitrogen Any trade, industry,
process or fuel burning
equipment
700 mg/Nm3 expressed as
nitrogen dioxide
(r) Particulate substances
including smoke, soot, dust,
ash, fly-ash, cinders, cement,
lime, alumina, grit and other
solid particles of any kind
Any trade, industry,
process, fuel burning
equipment or industrial
plant (except for any cold
blast foundry cupolas)
(i) 100 mg/Nm 3 ; or
(ii) where there is more than
one flue, duct or chimney in
any scheduled premises, the
total mass of the particulate
emissions from all of such
flue, duct or chimney divided
by the total volume of such
emissions shall not exceed
100 mg/Nm3 and the
particulate emissions from
each of such flue, duct or
chimney shall not exceed 200
mg/Nm3 at any point in time.
(s) Styrene monomer Any trade, industry or
process
100 mg/Nm3
(t) Sulphur dioxide (noncombustion
sources)
Any trade, industry or
process
500 mg/Nm3
(u) Sulphur trioxide and other The manufacture of
Page 5 of 7
2. In this Schedule —
"dioxins and furans" means polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and
polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), being tricyclic and aromatic compounds
formed by 2 benzene rings which are connected by 2 oxygen atoms in PCDD and by
one oxygen atom in PCDF and the hydrogen atoms of which may be replaced by up to
8 chlorine atoms;
"mg" means milligram;
"ng" means nanogram;
"Nm3" means normal cubic metre, being that amount of gas which when dry, occupies
a cubic metre at a temperature of 0 degree Centigrade and at an absolute pressure of
760 millimetres of mercury;
"TEF" means Toxic Equivalency Factor;
"TEQ" means Toxic Equivalent, being the sum total of the concentrations of each of
the dioxin and furan compounds specified in the first column of the table below
multiplied by their corresponding TEF specified in the second column thereof:
acid gases sulphuric acid 500 mg/Nm3 expressed as
sulphur trioxide. Effluent
gases shall be free from
persistent mist.
(v) Sulphur trioxide or
sulphuric acid mist
Any trade, industry or
process, other than any
combustion process and
any plant involving the
manufacture of sulphuric
acid
100 mg/Nm3 expressed as
sulphur trioxide
(w) Vinyl chloride monomer Any trade, industry or
process
20 mg/Nm3
Dioxin/Furan TEF
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.01
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.0001
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran 0.05
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran 0.5
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
Page 6 of 7
[G.N. Nos. S 595/2000;S 11/2001]
This legislation was last amended on 31 Jan 2008
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran 0.01
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran 0.01
Octachlorodibenzofuran 0.0001
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