Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Unsafe Work Practices


Hazards is a condition ( unsafe act/unsafe condition)  with the potential to cause harm or injury and it can happen anytime and anywhere. Examples of common WSH hazards includes 

1.Falling from height hazards, 2.Struck by objects,3.Electrical Hazards
4.Machine Hazards, 5.Mechanical Hazards of tools and equipments
6.Fore & Explosion Hazards,7)Noise Hazards,8)Confined Space Hazards
9)Ergonomic Hazards,10)Chemical Hazards,11)Thermal Hazards
12)Radiation Hazards

In the photographs, it was observed that  one worker (assume the father)  was horse playing at his workplace with his 3 year old boy where the father ( the worker) was seen  guiding the 3 year old boy by holding his hands guiding him to weld on a steel structure without any personal protection equipments. The 3 year old boy was and the workers both were found bare footed and without the proper leather hand glove, safety shoes and fire retardant coverall.

The unsafe practices identified are as follows:
1)Horseplay at work with a 3 year old boy
2).Failure to make use of PPE such as leather gloves ,leather coverall, safety shoes
3) Fail to provide fire extinguisher at the welding area for fire emergency purposes

Electric Overhead Travelling Crane Checklist



WSH (WSH COMMITTEES) REGULATIONS 2008


WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT(CHAPTER 354A)
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEES) REGULATIONS 2008
In exercise of the powers conferred by sections 29 and 65 of the Workplace Safety and Health
Act, Mr Gan Kim Yong, Senior Minister of State, charged with the responsibility of the Minister for
Manpower, hereby makes the following Regulations:
Arrangement of Regulations
PART I
PRELIMINARY
1. Citation and commencement
2. Definitions
3. Application
PART II
FORMATION OF WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE
4. Appointment of workplace safety and health committee and chairman
5. Appointment of secretary
6. Composition of workplace safety and health committee
PART III
MEETINGS OF WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE
7. Meetings
8. Minutes of meeting
9. Non-member may attend meetings
10. Matters to be discussed at meetings
PART IV
FUNCTIONS OF WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE
11. General inspection of factory
12. Inspection of factory after accident or dangerous occurrence
13. Action to be taken on report of workplace safety and health committee
14. Workplace safety and health committee to assist in organising certain activities to promote
safe conduct of work in factory
15. Guidelines to promote safe conduct of work in factory
16. Basic knowledge of members of workplace safety and health committee
17. Powers of workplace safety and health committee
PART V
MISCELLANEOUS
18. Offences
19. Revocation
20. Savings and transitional provisions
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEES) REGULATIONS 2008
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Actual Regulations
PART I
PRELIMINARY
Citation and Commencement
1. These Regulations may be cited as the Workplace Safety and Health (Workplace Safety and
Health Committees) Regulations 2008 and shall come into operation on 1st September 2008.
Definitions
2. In these Regulations, unless the context otherwise requires —
“chairman” means the chairman of a workplace safety and health committee appointed
under regulation 4(2)(b);
“member” means a member of a workplace safety and health committee and includes a
chairman thereof;
“secretary” means the secretary of a workplace safety and health committee appointed
under regulation 5(2) or deemed to be appointed under regulation 5(1);
“workplace safety and health committee”, in relation to a factory, means the workplace safety
and health committee appointed under regulation 4(2)(a) in respect of the factory.
Application
3. These Regulations shall apply in relation to every factory in which 50 or more persons are
ordinarily at work, excluding persons who carry out any work which is of a temporary nature and
is not ordinarily carried out in the factory.
PART II
FORMATION OF WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE
Appointment of workplace safety and health committee and chairman
4.—(1) For the purposes of section 29(1) of the Act, a workplace safety and health committee
shall be appointed in respect of every factory to which these Regulations apply.
(2) It shall be the duty of the occupier of such a factory to appoint, in respect of the factory —
(a) a workplace safety and health committee; and
(b) a person as a chairman of the workplace safety and health committee, being a person
whom the occupier reasonably believes is competent to perform the functions and
duties of its chairman.
Appointment of secretary
5.—(1) Where there is a person appointed as the workplace safety and health officer of a
factory, he shall be deemed to be appointed as the secretary of the workplace safety and health
committee of that factory.
(2) Where no person is appointed as the workplace safety and health officer of a factory, it shall
be the duty of the occupier of the factory to appoint, from among the members of the workplace
safety and health committee of the factory, a person to be its secretary.
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Composition of workplace safety and health committee
6. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a factory to ensure that —
(a) the workplace safety and health committee of the factory consists of members who are
representatives of persons at work in the factory and of the management of the
factory; and
(b) at all times, the number of members who are representatives of the persons at work in
the factory is not less than those who are representatives of the management of the
factory.
PART III
MEETINGS OF WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE
Meetings
7.—(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a factory to take, so far as is reasonably
practicable, such measures to ensure that the workplace safety and health committee of the
factory meets at least once a month to discuss matters relating to the safety and health of
persons at work in that factory.
(2) No person shall prevent any member from attending any meeting of his workplace safety
and health committee that is held during working hours.
(3) No person shall make any deduction from the salary of any member for being absent from
work for the purpose of attending any meeting of his workplace safety and health committee.
Minutes of meeting
8.—(1) It shall be the duty of the secretary of the workplace safety and health committee of a
factory to furnish a copy of the minutes of every meeting of the workplace safety and health
committee of the factory to every member thereof and to the occupier of the factory.
(2) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a factory to —
(a) keep a copy of such minutes in the factory for inspection by any inspector; and
(b) furnish a copy of such minutes to the Commissioner at any time when required by the
Commissioner.
Non-member may attend meetings
9. A workplace safety and health committee of a factory may invite any person employed in the
factory who has suffered bodily injury as a result of any accident or dangerous occurrence which
took place in the factory to attend any meeting of the committee to discuss the accident or
dangerous occurrence.
Matters to be discussed at meetings
10. At any meeting of a workplace safety and health committee of a factory, only matters
relating to the safety and health of persons at work in the factory shall be discussed.
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEES) REGULATIONS 2008
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PART IV
FUNCTIONS OF WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE
General inspection of factory
11.—(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a factory to take, so far as is reasonably
practicable, such measures to ensure that the workplace safety and health committee of the
factory inspects the factory at least once a month to see if necessary measures are taken to
ensure the safety and health of persons at work in the factory.
(2) Following every inspection of the factory under paragraph (1), it shall be the duty of the
chairman of the workplace safety and health committee of the factory to ensure that the
workplace safety and health committee —
(a) discusses the observations of the members during the inspection at its next meeting;
and
(b) records in a report —
(i) its opinion in respect of the lack of any measure, or any deficient measure, taken
to ensure the safety and health of persons at work in the factory; and
(ii) its recommendations on the actions to be taken in the factory to ensure the
safety and health of persons at work in the factory.
Inspection of factory after accident or dangerous occurrence
12.—(1) Where any accident or dangerous occurrence has taken place in any factory —
(a) it shall be the duty of the occupier of the factory to take, so far as is reasonably
practicable, such measures to ensure that the workplace safety and health committee
of the factory immediately carries out an inspection of the factory; and
(b) it shall be the duty of the workplace safety and health officer appointed in respect of
the factory (if one has been appointed) to immediately conduct an investigation into the
accident or dangerous occurrence and furnish the chairman of the workplace safety
and health committee of the factory with a report of the findings of his investigation.
(2) After an inspection has been carried out in accordance with paragraph (1)(a) of a factory
where an accident or a dangerous occurrence has taken place, it shall be the duty of the
chairman of the workplace safety and health committee of the factory to ensure that the
workplace safety and health committee of the factory —
(a) holds a meeting to discuss the observations of the members during the inspection and
the report of the workplace safety and health officer referred to in paragraph (1)(b), if
any; and
(b) records in a report —
(i) its opinion in respect of the lack of any measure, or any deficient measure, taken
to ensure the safety and health of persons at work in the factory so far
associated with the condition of factory and the cause of the accident or
dangerous occurrence; and
(ii) its recommendations on the actions to be taken in the factory to ensure the
safety and health of persons at work in the factory.
Action to be taken on report of workplace safety and health committee
13.—(1) It shall be the duty of the chairman to furnish every report of his workplace safety and
health committee referred to in regulation 11(2)(b) or 12(2)(b) to the occupier of the factory.
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEES) REGULATIONS 2008
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(2) It shall be the duty of the occupier of the factory, as soon as is reasonably practicable after
receiving any report furnished under paragraph (1), to do the following:
(a) discuss the recommendations of the workplace safety and health committee with the
workplace safety and health officer (if one has been appointed) or the chairman;
(b) record in the report the occupier’s decision; and
(c) direct any person at work in the factory to take such action as the occupier thinks
necessary in the interests of the safety and health of persons at work in the factory.
(3) It shall be the duty of the occupier of the factory to keep a copy of every report furnished
under paragraph (1) in the factory.
Workplace safety and health committee to assist in organising certain activities to
promote safe conduct of work in factory
14. The workplace safety and health committee of a factory may assist in organising any
contest, competition or other activity for the purpose of promoting the safe conduct of work in the
factory.
Guidelines to promote safe conduct of work in factory
15.—(1) The workplace safety and health committee of a factory shall, with the approval of the
occupier of the factory, issue a set of guidelines to promote the safety and health of persons at
work in the factory.
(2) The guidelines may, with the approval of the occupier of the factory, be amended or
revoked by the workplace safety and health committee.
(3) It shall be the duty of the occupier of the factory to publish a copy of the guidelines, and all
amendments made to the guidelines, in such manner as will secure adequate publicity at the
factory for the guidelines.
Basic knowledge of members of workplace safety and health committee
16. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a factory to take, so far as is reasonably practicable,
such measures to ensure that the members of the workplace safety and health committee have a
basic understanding and knowledge of the functions of a workplace safety and health committee
under the Act.
Powers of workplace safety and health committee
17. The workplace safety and health committee of a factory shall, for the purposes of
discharging its functions and duties under the Act, have the power to do all or any of the
following:
(a) to enter, inspect and examine the factory at any reasonable time;
(b) to inspect and examine any machinery, equipment, plant, installation or article in the
factory;
(c) to require the production of factory records, certificates, notices and documents kept or
required to be kept under the Act, including any other relevant document, and to
inspect and examine any of them;
(d) to make such examination and inquiry of the factory and of any person at work in that
factory as may be necessary to execute its duties;
(e) to assess the levels of noise, illumination, heat or harmful or hazardous substances in
the factory and the exposure levels of persons at work therein;
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEES) REGULATIONS 2008
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(f) to investigate any accident, dangerous occurrence or occupational disease that
occurred within the factory.
PART V
MISCELLANEOUS
Offences
18. Any person who contravenes regulation 4(2), 5(2), 6, 7(1), (2) or (3), 8(1) or (2), 11(1) or
(2), 12(1) or (2), 13(1), (2) or (3), 15(3) or 16 shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on
conviction —
(a) for a first offence, to a fine not exceeding $10,000; and
(b) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine not exceeding $20,000 or to
imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or to both.
Revocation
19. The Factories (Safety Committees) Regulations (Cap. 104, Rg 2) are revoked.
Savings and transitional provisions
20.—(1) Every person who, immediately before the date of commencement of these
Regulations, is the chairman or secretary or a member of a safety committee of a factory under
the repealed Factories (Safety Committees) Regulations shall continue in such capacity as if he
were the chairman or secretary or a member, as the case may be, of a workplace safety and
health committee appointed under these Regulations in respect of that factory.
(2) These Regulations shall not affect any inspection or investigation commenced or pending
before the date of commencement of these Regulations, and every such inspection or
investigation may be continued and everything which is or is to be done pursuant to every such
inspection or investigation may be done in all respects after that date as if these Regulations had
not been enacted.

WSH (EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOLS) REGULATIONS 2009


WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT
(CHAPTER 354A)
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOLS) REGULATIONS
2009
In exercise of the powers conferred by section 65 of the Workplace Safety and Health Act, the
Minister for Manpower hereby makes the following Regulations:
Arrangements of Regulations
PART 1
PRELIMINARY
Regulation
1. Citation and commencement
2. Definitions
3. Application
PART II
GENERAL PROVISIONS
4. General duty on employer or principal
5. Protective shield or device
6. General requirements for tools
7. Projectiles to meet requirements
8. Projectiles and charges to be compatible with tools
9. Colour to indicate strength of charge
10. Record of tools
11. Information to be engraved, embossed, printed or placed on tools
PART III
OPERATION AND SAFE USE OF TOOL
12. General duty on employer or principal
13. Only operator to use tool
14. Inspection of tools
15. Repair of tools
16. Personal protective equipment
17. Defective tools, projectiles and charges not to be used
18. Projectiles, charges, etc., to be suited to tool
19. Compliance with manufacturer’s instructions
20. Barrel extensions
21. Limitation on use of charges
22. Use of tools in dangerous environment
23. Use of tools on roof
24. Handling of tools
25. Discharging of tools
26. Free flying projectile prohibited
27. Firing into certain materials forbidden
28. Tools to be kept clean
29. Procedure in case of misfire
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOLS) REGULATIONS 2009
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PART IIII
CARE AND STORAGE OF TOOLS AND EXPLOSIVE CHARGES
Regulation
30. Storage of tools
31. Loading and carrying of tools
32. Storage of charges
PART V
MISCELLANEOUS
33. Offence
34. Revocation
ACTUAL PROVISIONS
PART I
PRELIMINARY
Citation and commencement
1. These Regulations may be cited as the Workplace Safety and Health (Explosive Powered
Tools) Regulations 2009 and shall come into operation on 1st September 2009.
Definitions
2. In these Regulations, unless the context otherwise requires —
“authorised person” means —
(a) a manufacturer of tools, projectiles or charges for use in a tool; or
(b) any person authorised by the manufacturer of a tool to repair the tool;
“charge” means an explosive charge;
“defect” means any defect that may impair or affect the safe and normal operation of a tool;
“direct acting tool” means a tool in which the driving force on the projectile comes directly from
compressed gases from a charge;
“indirect acting tool” means a tool in which the driving force from a charge is transmitted
indirectly onto the projectile via a piston;
“operator” means a person who uses a tool and who has successfully completed training
course acceptable to the Commissioner on the operation of that tool;
“projectile” means any stud, pin, dowel, screw, rivet, spike, nail or other object driven against,
into or through any substance by means of a tool;
“recognised testing body” means a testing body acceptable to the Commissioner;
“repair” includes any act or attempt to improve, modify, alter or adjust any tool;
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOLS) REGULATIONS 2009
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“tool” means any explosive powered tool from which a projectile may be driven against, into or
through any substance by means of a charge, and includes every attachment or accessory
used, adapted or intended to be used with the device, but does not include a firearm within
the meaning of the Arms and Explosives Act (Cap. 13) or a side wall coring gun used in
exploratory bore hole work;
“use”, in relation to a tool, means to load, unload or discharge the tool, or to attempt to load,
unload or discharge the tool.
Application
3. These Regulations shall apply in relation to every workplace in which an explosive
powered tool is used.
PART II
GENERAL PROVISIONS
General duty on employer or principal
4. It shall be the duty of —
(a) the employer of a person who uses a tool; or
(b) the principal under whose direction a person uses a tool,
to ensure that the requirements of regulations 5 to 9 are complied with in relation to the tool
and any projectile or charge to be used in or with the tool.
Protective shield or device
5. Where a tool is a direct acting tool, it shall have a protective shield or device attached to its
muzzle end in such a manner —
(a) as to effectively arrest the escape of any stray projectile and any other object or particle
liberated by the discharge of the tool; and
(b) that the outer edge of the shield or device is not at any point closer to the centre of the
muzzle end of the barrel than a distance of 50 millimetres, except where the tool is used in
the circumstances described in regulation 23.
General requirements for tools
6. No tool shall be used unless —
(a) it is of good construction, sound material and adequate strength, is free from patent
defects and is in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner;
(b) a projectile cannot be discharged from it if it is dropped onto a surface from a height of 3
metres or more;
(c) it cannot be discharged accidentally while being handled; and
(d) where it is a direct acting tool, it can only be discharged —
(i) if a force of 110 newtons or more is applied by its operator to the springs of the breech
and firing mechanisms; and
(ii) if the axis of its barrel or barrel extension does not deviate by more than 7 degrees from
a right angle formed by the barrel and the surface into which a projectile is to be fired from
it.
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Projectiles to meet requirements
7. No projectile shall be used in a tool unless —
(a) in the case of a smooth shanked projectile, the projectile can be bent through an angle of
40 degrees;
(b) in the case of a knurled shanked projectile, the projectile can be bent through an angle of
30 degrees; and
(c) the projectile, in a bend test for ductility, is able to bend about a pin with a diameter equal
to the diameter of the shank of the projectile.
Projectiles and charges to be compatible with tools
8. No projectile or charge shall be used with a tool unless it is of a standard or quality that is
compatible with the specifications of the manufacturer of the tool.
Colour to indicate strength of charge
9. No charge shall be used in a tool unless the charge is marked, either at the top or at the
bottom, with a colour indicating the strength of the charge in accordance with a standard or
specification acceptable to the Commissioner.
Record of tools
10. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to keep and maintain a record of —
(a) the type and serial number of every tool in use in the workplace; and
(b) the names and addresses of each of the respective owners and users of the tools.
Information to be engraved, embossed, printed or placed on tools
11. It shall be the duty of the owner of a tool to ensure that —
(a) the following notice is permanently embossed, printed or placed on the tool:
“DO NOT REMOVE THIS TOOL FROM THE WORK SURFACE FOR AT LEAST 10
SECONDS AFTER IT HAS FAILED TO FIRE.”; and
(b) the serial number and model identification of the tool are permanently and legibly
engraved or embossed upon the tool.
PART III
OPERATION AND SAFE USE OF TOOL
General duty on employer or principal
12. It shall be the duty of —
(a) the employer of a person who uses a tool; or
(b) the principal under whose direction a person uses a tool,
to ensure that the requirements of regulations 17(1), 18, 20 and 27 are complied with in
relation to the tool and any projectile or charge to be used in or with the tool.
Only operator to use tool
13. It shall be the duty of —
(a) the employer of a person who uses a tool; or
(b) the principal under whose direction a person uses a tool,
to ensure that the person is qualified to be an operator.
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Inspection of tools
14.—(1) It shall be the duty of the owner of a tool to ensure that the tool is not used unless —
(a) it has been inspected, examined and maintained by an authorised person in accordance
with the manufacturer’s recommendations;
(b) it is free from any patent defect; and
(c) it has been inspected and tested by a recognised testing body, in accordance with a
standard acceptable to the Commissioner, at least once in every 3 years.
(2) It shall be the duty of the operator of a tool to inspect the tool in accordance with its
manufacturer’s instructions before use.
Repair of tools
15.—(1) No person, other than an authorised person, shall repair a tool.
(2) It shall be the duty of the owner of a tool —
(a) to ensure that he does not employ, cause or permit any person, other than an authorised
person, to repair the tool;
(b) knowing that the tool has been repaired by a person other than an authorised person, to
ensure that he does not use and does not employ, cause or permit any other person to use
the tool; and
(c) to ensure that he does not, at any time, repair or modify the tool in such a way that it does
not conform with its manufacturer’s specifications.
(3) If an inspector has reason to believe any tool is unsafe, he may direct the owner,
purchaser or operator of the tool not to use or not to employ, cause or permit any person to
use the tool until —
(a) the tool has been repaired; and
(b) a certificate certifying that the tool is safe for use has been issued by a recognised testing
body or an authorised person.
Personal protective equipment
16. It shall be the duty of —
(a) the employer of a person who uses a tool in a workplace; or
(b) the principal under whose direction a person uses a tool in a workplace,
to ensure that —
(i) the person;
(ii) any other person who assists in the use of the tool; and
(iii) any other person in the workplace who is subject to the risk of injury from the tool,
are provided with suitable eye protection, suitable head protection and such other personal
protective equipment or devices as are capable of protecting a person from injury.
Defective tools, projectiles and charges not to be used
17.—(1) No tool, projectile or charge shall be used unless it complies with a standard or
specification acceptable to the Commissioner.
(2) It shall be the duty of any person who knows that a tool, projectile or charge is defective
to ensure that he does not use, and that he does not cause or permit any other person to use,
that tool, projectile or charge.
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Projectiles, charges, etc., to be suited to tool
18.—(1) No projectile, charge, breech plug, barrel extension or adaptor shall be used with a
tool unless it is of a type suitable for use with the tool.
(2) No tool shall be used for any purpose other than that for which it was made, adapted or
intended.
Compliance with manufacturer’s instructions
19. It shall be the duty of both the owner of a tool and the operator of the tool to comply with
any instruction, advice or recommendation which appears on the tool or its container, or in
any document supplied by the manufacturer of the tool, unless such instruction, advice or
recommendation is contrary to these Regulations.
Barrel extensions
20. No barrel extension shall be used on a direct acting tool unless there is attached to the
extension a protective shield or device referred to in regulation 5.
Limitation on use of charges
21.—(1) It shall be the duty of any person who loads a charge in a tool to ensure that the
charge is not any charge that he knows, or ought reasonably to know from testing, to be —
(a) in excess of that necessary for the purpose for which the tool is to be used; or
(b) of such strength as will cause the whole of the projectile to pass through the substance on
which the tool is to be used.
(2) Paragraph (1)(b) shall not apply where the substance is backed by a material that is
capable of absorbing the energy of the projectile fully.
Use of tools in dangerous environment
22. It shall be the duty of any person who uses a tool to ensure that the tool is not used —
(a) in the presence of any explosive or flammable gas, dust or vapour;
(b) in any compressed air environment; or
(c) in any place where the charge is likely to explode or be rendered dangerous by the
presence of heat.
Use of tools on roof
23. It shall be the duty of any person who uses a tool to ensure that the tool is not used on
any roof unless the area beneath the person —
(a) has been cleared; and
(b) is kept clear for a distance of 6 metres in every direction from the spot beneath the place
where the person is working.
Handling of tools
24. It shall be the duty of any person who uses, carries or handles a loaded tool to —
(a) keep every part of his body clear of the muzzle end of the tool;
(b) keep the muzzle end of the tool pointed away from any other person; and
(c) exercise the utmost care to avoid injury to himself and others.
Discharging of tools
25.—(1) It shall be the duty of any person who uses a tool to ensure that the tool is not
discharged unless —
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOLS) REGULATIONS 2009
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(a) he is in a safe, well-balanced position that will prevent tilting or misalignment of the tool at
the time of firing; and
(b) the tool is placed on the substance into which a projectile is to be driven in such a
manner that the protective shield or device referred to in regulation 5 will effectively arrest
the escape of stray projectiles and any other object or particle discharged by the firing of the
tool.
(2) It shall be the duty of any person who uses a direct acting tool that is fitted with an
interchangeable or adjustable protective shield or device referred to in regulation 5 to ensure
that the distance between any part of the outer edge of that shield or device and the centre of
the muzzle end of the barrel is less than 50 millimetres, unless the escape of a projectile into
any area outside the shield but within a radius of less than 50 millimetres from the centre of
the barrel will effectively be arrested by other surrounding material.
Free flying projectile prohibited
26. It shall be the duty of any person who uses a tool to ensure that the tool is not fired in
such a manner as to cause a projectile to fly free.
Firing into certain materials forbidden
27. No tool shall be used for driving a projectile —
(a) into high tensile steel, steel hardened by heat treatment, cast iron or any other substance
of a hardness that a projectile is not designed to penetrate;
(b) into tiles, terracotta, glazed brick, glass, marble, granite, thin slate or any other substance
that is readily shattered;
(c) into concrete or reinforced concrete, where any initial trial has shown that the aggregate is
of such hardness, or the reinforcing is so positioned, that the use of the tool is unsafe;
(d) so close to the edge of any substance, or to any hole in the substance, as either to risk
cracking or breaking the substance or to risk the escape of the projectile from the substance;
(e) within 15 millimetres, in the case of a direct acting tool, or within 10 millimetres, in the case
of an indirect acting tool, of the edge of any exposed steel reinforcement; or
(f) into any brick, concrete or similar substance that is within 75 millimetres, in the case of a
direct acting tool, or within 50 millimetres, in the case of an indirect acting tool, of an edge of a
structure of which the brick, concrete or substance forms a part.
Tools to be kept clean
28. It shall be the duty of any person who uses a tool to ensure that after each firing of the
tool, he carefully examines it and removes from it any piece of projectile or explosive charge
and any other foreign matter that may be present.
Procedure in case of misfire
29. It shall be the duty of any person who fires a tool to ensure that where the charge fails to
explode —
(a) he continues to hold the tool in the firing position for at least 10 seconds; and
(b) if the charge does not explode within that time, he unloads the tool or places it in such a
position as to eliminate the possibility of a person being injured in the event of the charge
exploding subsequently.
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOLS) REGULATIONS 2009
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PART IV
CARE AND STORAGE OF TOOLS AND EXPLOSIVE CHARGES
Storage of tools
30.—(1) It shall be the duty of the owner of a tool to ensure that the tool is kept in a securely
locked container at all times, unless the tool is required for use, inspection or repair.
(2) No person shall take a tool out of its container unless —
(a) the tool is required for use, inspection or repair by him; or
(b) the tool is required for use, inspection or repair by another person, and he is taking the
tool out of its container for delivery by him to that person.
(3) It shall be the duty of any person who uses, inspects or repairs a tool to ensure that —
(a) the tool is kept in its container after he has used, inspected or repaired it;
(b) while the tool is being used, inspected or repaired, the tool is not left unattended, unless
effective precautions are taken to ensure that it will not be removed, handled or used by any
other person; and
(c) any charge intended for use in the tool is not left unattended, unless effective precautions
are taken to ensure that the charge will not be removed, handled or used by any other
person.
Loading and carrying of tools
31. It shall be the duty of —
(a) the employer of a person who uses a tool; or
(b) the principal under whose direction a person uses a tool,
to ensure that —
(i) the tool is not loaded other than at the place where it is to be used; and
(ii) the tool is not carried from place to place while it is loaded, unless the tool cannot
be unloaded by reason of any mechanical failure or misfire.
Storage of charges
32.—(1) It shall be the duty of the owner of any charge intended for use in a tool to ensure
that —
(a) the charge is kept in a securely locked container provided for that purpose; and
(b) the container referred to in sub-paragraph (a) is clearly marked with —
(i) the words “EXPLOSIVE CHARGES”; or
(ii) any other markings in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the
Commissioner.
(2) It shall be the duty of any person who has custody of any charge intended for use in a tool
to ensure that —
(a) every container in which any charge in his custody is kept is securely locked, except when
any charge is being kept in or removed from the container;
(b) he does not permit any person, other than a person using or assisting in the use of a tool,
to open any container in which any charge in his custody is kept; and
(c) he does not use, or permit any other person to use, any container in which any charge in
his custody is kept for any purpose other than the storage of charges.
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOLS) REGULATIONS 2009
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PART V
MISCELLANEOUS
Offence
33. Any person who contravenes regulation 15(1) or 30(2), or any provision of these
Regulations which imposes a duty on him, shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on
conviction to a fine not exceeding $20,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2
years or to both.
Revocation
34. The Factories (Explosive Powered Tools) Regulations (Cap. 104, Rg 12) are revoked.

WSH ( WSHO) REGULATIONS 2007

WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007


Citation and commencement
The Workplace Safety and Health (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007 comes into operation on 1st August 2007.

Application for approval to be WSH Officer 

A person may apply to the Commissioner for his approval to act as a WSH Officer. The application shall be accompanied by the appropriate fees & the fees are not refundable.
Requirements for approval as WSH Officer
  • successfully completed a training course to equip him to become a WSH officer; and
    at least 2 years’ practical experience relevant to the work to be performed by a WSH officer; or
  • although not having the qualifications and practical experience, he nevertheless has had such other qualifications and practical experience as to render him, in the Commissioner’s opinion, competent to act as a WSH officer.
Certificate of approval
A certificate of approval for a person to act as a WSH officer is valid for a period of 2 years, or less, from the date of approval.
A certificate of approval issued shall not be transferable.
Where a certificate of approval is lost, destroyed or defaced, the holder of the certificate may apply to the Commissioner for a replacement certificate on payment of the appropriate fee.
Renewal of approvalAn application by a person for the renewal to act as a WSH officer shall be made in such form and manner as the Commissioner may determine, and shall be accompanied by the appropriate fees.
Any renewal fee paid is not be refundable.
Upon receiving an application for the renewal of approval under paragraph (1), the Commissioner may —
  • renew the approval to act as a WSH officer for a period of 2 years; or
  • refuse the renewal application if the Commissioner is satisfied that the applicant is no longer a fit and proper person to act as a WSH officer.
Register of WSH officersThe Commissioner shall keep an up-to-date register of all persons approved to act as WSH officers.

WSH officer to attend courses
WSH officer may be required to attend training courses which are relevant to the work of a WSH officer.
Where a WSH officer fails to comply with above, the Commissioner may —
  • cancel the approval of the person as a workplace safety and health officer; or
  • refuse the renewal application of a person as a workplace safety and health officer.
Workplaces requiring WSH officers
Workplace within the prescribed class or description of workplaces specified in the Second Scheduleshall have appointed in writing in respect thereof a WSH officer.
A WSH officer referred to in paragraph above shall be appointed by the occupier of a workplace.
Any occupier of a workplace who contravenes above requirement may be fined not exceeding $10,000 and, in the case of a continuing offence, to a further fine not exceeding $1,000 for every day or part thereof during which the offence continues after conviction.

SECOND SCHEDULE - WORKPLACES TO APPOINT WSH OFFICER 
  1. Shipyards in which any ship, tanker and other vessels are constructed, reconstructed, repaired, refitted, finished or broken up.
  2. Factories used for processing petroleum or petroleum products.
  3. Factories in which building operations or works of engineering construction of a contract sum of $10 million or more are carried out.
  4. Any other factories in which 100 or more persons are employed, except those which are used for manufacturing garments.

Duties of WSH officer
  • to assist the occupier of the workplace or other person in charge of the workplace to identify and assess any foreseeable risk arising from the workplace or work processes therein;
  • to recommend to the occupier of the workplace or other person in charge of the workplace reasonably practicable measures to eliminate any foreseeable risk to any person who is at work in that workplace or may be affected by the occupier’s undertaking in the workplace;
  • where it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk, to recommend to the occupier of the workplace or other person in charge of the workplace —
    (i) such reasonably practicable measures to minimise the risk; and
    (ii) such safe work procedures to control the risk; and
  • to assist the occupier of the workplace or other person in charge of the workplace implement the measure or safe work procedure
Any WSH officer who, without reasonable excuse, contravenes the above is guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $5,000 and, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, to a fine not exceeding $10,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or to both.
Powers of WSH officer
  • enter, inspect and examine at any reasonable time the workplace;
  • inspect and examine any machinery, equipment, plant, installation or article in the workplace;
  • require the production of workplace records, certificates, notices and documents kept or required to be kept under the Act, including any other relevant document, and to inspect and examine any of them;
  • make such examination and inquiry of the workplace and of any person at work at that workplace as may be necessary to execute his duties;
  • assess the levels of noise, illumination, heat or harmful or hazardous substances in the workplace and the exposure levels of persons at work therein;
  • investigate any accident, dangerous occurrence or occupational disease that occurred within the workplace.
Consequential amendment and revocations
(1) The Factories (Registration and Other Services — Fees and Forms) Regulations are amended by deleting regulation 5.
The following subsidiary legislation are revoked:
  • the Factories (Registration and Duties of Safety Officers) Regulations
  • the Factories (Safety Officers) Order
  • the Factories (Qualifications and Training of Safety Officers) Notification

WSH ( GENERAL PROVISION) REGULATIONS


WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS  
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WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT  B0
(CHAPTER 354A, SECTION 65)  B1
WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS  B2
In exercise of the powers conferred by section 65 of the Workplace Safety and Health Act, the
Minister for Manpower hereby makes the following Regulations:
Arrangement of Provisions
PART I   H0
PRELIMINARY H1
1 Citation  H2
2 Definitions  H3
PART II   H4
GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO HEALTH   H5
3 Infectious agents and biohazardous material  H6
4 Overcrowding  H7
5 Ventilation  H8
6 Lighting  H9
7 Drainage of floors  H01
8 Sanitary conveniences  H
9 Reduction of vibration  H21
10 Protection against excessive heat or cold and harmful radiations  H31
PART III   H41
GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO SAFETY   H51
11 Prime movers  H61
12 Electric generator, motor, transmission machinery, etc.  H71
13 Removal of fencing from machinery  H81
14 Electrical installation and equipment  H91
15 Construction and maintenance of fencing or other safeguards  H02
16 Lock-out procedures  H12
17 Protective measures relating to tanks, structur H es, sumps or pits containing dangerous substances
18 Self-acting machines  H32
19 Hoists and lifts  H42
20 Lifting gears  H52
21 Lifting appliances and lifting machines  H62
22 Register of lifting gears, etc.  H72
23 Measures to be taken to prevent falls  H82
24 Storage of goods  H92
25 ( H03 Deleted with effect from 01/11/2009)
26 Precautions with regard to explosive  H13 or flammable dust, gas, vapour or substance
27 Conditions before steam boiler, steam receiver, air re H23 ceiver or refrigerating plant pressure receiver
may be used
28 Steam boilers  H
29 Steam receivers  H43
30 Steam containers  H53
31 Air receivers  H63
32 Periodical examinations when authorised examiner is not available  H73
33 Pressure vessel containing hazardous substance  H83
34 Pipes and equipment conveying certain substances  H93
35 Gas plants  H04
36 Repair of pressure vessel  H14
37 Prevention of fire  H24
38 Safety provisions in case of fire  H34WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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PART IV   H
SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO  H54 HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELFARE
39 Toxic dust, fumes or other contaminants  H64
40 Permissible exposure levels of toxic substances  H74
41 Hazardous substances  H84
42 Warning labels  H94
43 Safety data sheet  H05
44  Exclusion from regulations 41, 42 and 43  H15
PART V   H25
MISCELLANEOUS   H35
45 Offence  H45
FIRST SCHEDULE
PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVELS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES
SECOND SCHEDULE  H65
(Deleted with effect from 01/03/2010) WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 3 -
Actual Provisions
PART I  B3
PRELIMINARY  B4
Citation
1. These Regulations may be cited as the Workplace Safety and Health (General Provisions)
Regulations.
Definitions
2. In these Regulations, unless the context otherwise requires —
“competent person” means a person who has sufficient experience and training to perform the work
required to be carried out, and has passed such courses as the Commissioner may require for that work;
“electrical equipment” —
(a) means any machine, appliance, apparatus or lighting fitting which consumes or utilises electricity in its
operation or use; and
(b) includes any cable, wire and other device necessary to enable it to be connected to a source of
electricity supply;
“hazardous substance” means any hazardous substance specified in Part II of the Fifth Schedule to the
Act;
“PEL (Long Term)” means the permissible exposure level over an 8-hour working day and a 40-hour work
week;
“PEL (Short Term)” means the permissible exposure level over a 15-minute period during any working
day;
“permissible exposure level” means the maximum time weighted average concentration of a toxic
substance to which any person may be exposed;
“plant” means any machinery, vessel, pipe or other apparatus or combination thereof which is connected
or used for the purpose of making a product;
“safe working load” means —
(a) the safe working load specified in the certificate of test and examination obtained for the purposes of
regulation 19, 20 or 21; or
(b) where there is no such certificate, the safe working load as ascertained by an authorised examiner;
“safe working pressure” means the pressure specified in the report of examination referred to in
regulation 28, 29 or 31;
“tank” includes any pipe and valve thereof and all its fittings and attachments;
“time weighted average concentration” means the concentration determined by adding together the
products of each concentration and the corresponding time over which that concentration was measured,
and dividing the sum by the total time over which the measurements were taken;
“toxic substance” means any substance which may cause irritation, bodily injury or any harmful effect to a
person through ingestion, inhalation or contact with any body surface, and includes any substance
specified in the First Schedule;  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 4 -
“transmission machinery” means every shaft, wheel, drum, pulley, system of fast and loose pulleys,
coupling, clutch, driving-belt or other device by which the motion of a prime mover is transmitted to or
received by any machine or appliance.
PART II  B5
GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO HEALTH  B6
Infectious agents and biohazardous material
3. —(1) Where any person at work in any workplace carries out any process, operation or work involving
exposure to any infectious agents or biohazardous material which may constitute a risk to his health, it
shall be the duty of the employer of that person to take effective measures to protect that person from
their harmful effects.
(2) In this regulation, “biohazardous material” includes —
(a) any substance which contains toxins;
(b) any biological waste;
(c) any culture medium;
(d) any contaminated blood, urine or faeces;
(e) any infected tissue or organ; and
(f) any infected animal.
Overcrowding
4. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that while work is carried on in the
workplace, the workplace is not overcrowded so as to pose safety and health risks to the persons at work
therein.
Ventilation
5. —(1) Subject to paragraph (3), it shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that every
workroom of the workplace is provided with adequate ventilation.
(2) Where gases, vapours or other impurities are generated in the course of any process or work carried
out in a workplace which may be injurious to health, it shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace to
provide effective and suitable ventilation —
(a) for securing and maintaining the circulation of fresh air in the workplace; and
(b) to render harmless, so far as is reasonably practicable, all such gases, vapours or other
impurities.
(3) This regulation shall not apply to any workplace where it is impracticable to make provision for
adequate ventilation and where suitable air-supplied breathing apparatus is provided to persons at work
in the workplace.
Lighting
6. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to provide and maintain sufficient and suitable
lighting, whether natural or artificial, in every part of the workplace in which persons are at work or
passing.
Drainage of floors
7. In any workplace where any process is carried on which renders the floor liable to be wet, it shall be WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 5 -
the duty of the occupier of the workplace to provide and maintain, so far as is reasonably practicable,
effective means for draining off the wet.
Sanitary conveniences
8. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace —
(a) to provide, maintain and keep clean, sufficient and suitable sanitary conveniences for
     the persons at work in the workplace; and
(b) to provide and maintain sufficient and suitable lighting for these sanitary
                  conveniences.
Reduction of vibration
9. In any workplace where persons are at work in any process or operation which involves exposure to
vibration which may constitute a risk to their health, it shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace to
provide, so far as is reasonably practicable, effective means to reduce the vibration.
Protection against excessive heat or cold and harmful radiations
10. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to take all reasonably practicable measures to
ensure that persons at work in the workplace are protected from excessive heat or cold and harmful
radiations.
PART III  B7
GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO SAFETY  B8
Prime movers  B9
11. Subject to regulation 13, it shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that in every
workplace where a prime mover is used, every flywheel connected to the prime mover and every moving
part of the prime mover is securely fenced, whether the flywheel or prime mover is situated in the engine
house or not.
Electric generator, motor, transmission machinery, etc.
12. —(1) Subject to regulation 13, it shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that every
dangerous part (including any flywheel) of any electric generator, motor, transmission machinery or other
machinery in the workplace is securely fenced unless the dangerous part of the generator, motor or
machinery —
(a) is in such a position or of such construction as to be safe to every person at work in
                 the workplace as it would be if securely fenced; or
(b) is made safe for persons at work in the workplace by other effective means which will
                 protect the persons from being injured by the dangerous part when that part is in
                 motion or in use.
(2) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that in any room or place in the workplace
where transmission machinery is used, there is provided and maintained efficient devices or appliances in
that room or place by which the power can promptly be cut off from the transmission machinery.
(3) Without prejudice to the generality of paragraph (1), it shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace
to ensure that any part of a stock-bar used in a workplace which projects beyond the headstock of a lathe
is securely fenced or is otherwise made safe to every person at work in the workplace.
Removal of fencing from machinery
13. —(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the fencing or other effective means referred to in regulations 11 and
12 (1) which are used to render machinery safe may be removed to such extent as is necessary when —
(a) a person is carrying out in the workplace, while the part of machinery is in motion —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 6 -
(i) any examination of the machinery or part of the machinery; or
(ii) any lubrication or adjustment shown by such examination to be immediately
      necessary, being an examination, a lubrication or an adjustment which is
     necessary to be carried out while the part of machinery is in motion; or
(b) a person is carrying out in the workplace any lubrication or any mounting or shifting
      of belts in respect of any part of a transmission machinery and if —
(i) the Commissioner has determined that, owing to the continuous nature of such
     process, the stopping of that part would seriously interfere with the carrying on
     of the process in the workplace; and
(ii) the lubrication or mounting or shifting of belts is carried out by such methods
                 and in such circumstances and subject to such conditions as the Commissioner
                 may determine.
(2) Paragraph (1) shall only apply where —
(a) the relevant examination, lubrication or other operation is carried out by a person who —
(i) has attained the age of 18 years;
(ii) has been trained to carry out, and is acquainted with the dangers of moving
                   machinery connected with the relevant examination, lubrication or other
                   operation; and
(iii) is wearing clothing which has no loose ends and which is fastened by means
                   having no exposed loose ends;
(b) another person, instructed as to the steps to be taken in case of an emergency, is
                  immediately available within sight or hearing of the person carrying out the relevant
                  examination, lubrication or other operation; and
(c) any ladder or work platform in use for the carrying out of the relevant examination,
                  lubrication or other operation is securely fixed or lashed, or is firmly held by a person
                  stationed at the foot of the ladder.
Electrical installation and equipment
14. —(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that every electrical installation and
electrical equipment in the workplace —
(a) is of good construction, sound material and free from defects; and
(b) is used and maintained in such manner so that it is safe to use.
(2) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that all reasonably practicable measures
are taken to protect any person against the risks of electric shock arising from or in connection with the
use at work of any electrical installation or equipment in the workplace.
Construction and maintenance of fencing or other safeguards
15. —(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that all fencing or other safeguards
required to be provided for the purposes of regulations 11 and 12 are —
(a) of substantial construction;
(b) properly maintained; and  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 7 -
(c) kept in position and properly adjusted to render the machinery safe for any person
                 while the parts required to be fenced or safeguarded are in motion or in use.
(2) Paragraph (1) (c) shall not apply where —
(a) the parts mentioned in that paragraph are necessarily exposed in motion ffor
                 examination and for any lubrication or adjustment shown by such examination to be
                 immediately necessary; and
(b) all the conditions specified in regulation 13 (2) are complied with.
Lock-out procedures
16. —(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to establish and implement lock-out
procedures relating to the inspection, cleaning, repair or maintenance of any plant, machinery, equipment
or electrical installation in the workplace that, if inadvertently activated or energised, is liable to cause
bodily injury to any person.
(2) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that every person carrying out any
inspection, cleaning, repair or maintenance of any plant, machinery, equipment or electrical installation in
the workplace is fully instructed on the lock-out procedures for that work before commencing that work.
(3) In this regulation, “lock-out procedures” means a set of procedures —
(a) to ensure that all energy sources to the relevant plant, machinery, equipment or
                electrical installation are isolated, disconnected or discharged; and
(b) to prevent any part of the plant, machinery, equipment or electrical installation from
                  being inadvertently activated or energised.
Protective measures relating to tanks, structures, sumps or pits containing dangerous
substances
17. —(1) Where any tank, structure, sump or pit in a workplace contains any scalding, burning, corrosive
or toxic liquid and the edge of the tank, structure, sump or pit is less than one metre above the highest
ground or platform from which a person might fall into it, it shall be the duty of the occupier of the
workplace to ensure that —
  (a) the tank, structure, sump or pit is securely covered or is securely fenced to a height of
                 at least one metre above that ground or platform; or
(b) where by reason of the nature of the work, neither secure covering nor secure fencing
                 to that height is practicable, all reasonably practicable steps are taken by covering,
                 fencing or other means to prevent any person from falling into the tank, structure,
                 sump or pit.
(2) Where any tank, structure, sump or pit in a workplace contains any scalding, burning, corrosive or
toxic liquid but is not securely covered, it shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace to ensure that
no ladder, stair or gangway is placed above, across or inside it unless the ladder, stair or gangway is —
(a) at least 500 millimetres wide; and
(b) securely fenced to a height of at least one metre and securely fixed.
(3) Where any such tank, structure, sump or pit in a workplace referred to in paragraph (2) adjoins
another tank, structure, sump or pit, and —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 8 -
(a) the space between them, clear of any surrounding brick or other work, is less than 500
                 millimetres in width; or
(b) each tank, structure, sump or pit is not securely fenced to a height of at least one
                  metre, it shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace to ensure that secure  
                  barriers are so placed as to prevent passage between them.
(4) For the purposes of this regulation, a ladder, stair or gangway shall not be considered to be securely
fenced unless it is provided either with sheet fencing or with an upper and a lower rail and toe boards.
(5) Where any tank, structure, sump or pit in a workplace contains any scalding, burning, corrosive or
toxic liquid, it shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace to ensure that a warning notice indicating
the nature of the danger and in a form readily understood by persons at work in that workplace —
(a) is marked on or attached to the tank, structure, sump or pit; or
(b) if this is not reasonably practicable, is posted nearby.
Self-acting machines
18. —(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to take all reasonably practicable steps to
ensure that any self-acting machine in the workplace poses no risk to the safety and health of any person
working in the workplace.
(2) The reasonably practicable steps include the following:
(a) ensuring that no traversing part of any self-acting machine nor any material carried
                 thereon shall, if the space into which it runs is a space over which any person
                 (whether or not at work) is liable to pass, be less than 500 millimetres measured from
                 any fixed structure not being part of the machine to the furthest point of its inward or
                 outward traverse;
(b) ensuring that no person at work in the workplace shall, when the machine is in
                 operation, be in the space between any traversing part of the machine and any fixed
                 part of the machine towards which the traversing part moves on the inward run; and
(c) displaying on such machinery or at a place nearest to the process or work a notice
                  written in languages understood by the persons at work using such machinery or in
                 any such process or work describing the safety measures to be observed.
Hoists and lifts
19. —(1) No hoist or lift shall be used in a workplace unless an authorised examiner has —
(a) tested and examined the hoist or lift after its installation; and
(b) issued and signed a certificate of test and examination, specifying the safe working
                  load of the hoist or lift.
(2) The certificate of test and examination referred to in paragraph (1) (b) shall be kept available for
inspection.
(3) Subject to paragraph (10) (c), every hoist or lift used in a workplace shall be thoroughly examined by
an authorised examiner at least once every 6 months or at such other intervals as the Commissioner may
determine.  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 9 -
(4) Every hoistway or liftway used in a workplace shall be efficiently protected by a substantial enclosure
fitted with gates that will, when the gates are shut, prevent any person from falling down the way or
coming into contact with any moving part of the hoist or lift.
(5) Subject to paragraph (10) (b), any gate referred to in paragraph (4) shall be fitted with efficient
interlocking or other devices to ensure that —
(a) the gate cannot be opened except when the cage or platform is at the landing; and

(b) the cage or platform cannot be moved away from the landing until the gate is closed.
(6) Every hoist or lift and every enclosure referred to in paragraph (4) shall be so constructed as to
prevent any part of any person or any goods carried in the hoist or lift being trapped between —
(a) any part of the hoist or lift and any fixed structure; or
(b) the counterbalance weight and any other moving part of the hoist or lift.
(7) Every hoist or lift shall be marked conspicuously with the maximum working load which it can safely
carry.
(8) No hoist or lift shall be used in a workplace to carry a load exceeding its maximum working load.
(9) The following additional requirements shall apply to lifts used in a workplace:
(a) efficient automatic devices shall be provided and maintained to prevent the cage or
                 platform from over-running;
(b) every cage shall, on each side from which access is afforded to a landing, be fitted
                 with a gate with efficient devices to ensure that, when persons or goods are in the
                 cage, the cage —
(i) cannot be raised or lowered unless all the gates are closed; and
(ii) will come to rest when a gate is opened; and
(c) where the cage or platform of the lift is suspended by rope or chain —
(i) the cage or platform shall be separately connected with at least 2 ropes or
                chains, each rope or chain and its attachments being capable of carrying the
                whole weight of the cage or platform and its maximum working load; and
(ii) efficient devices shall be provided and maintained which will support the cage
                  or platform with its maximum working load in the event of a breakage of the
                  ropes or chains or any of their attachments.
(10) In the case of a hoist or lift used in a workplace which is not powered with mechanical power —
(a) paragraph (9) shall not apply;
(b) the gate referred to in paragraph (4) shall be kept closed and fastened except when the
                  cage or platform is at rest at the landing; and
(c) a thorough examination of the hoist or lift shall be carried out at least once every year
                  by an authorised examiner.
(11) Where a hoistway or liftway inside a workplace passes through 2 or more floors —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 10 -
(a) the hoistway or liftway shall be completely enclosed with fire-resisting materials,
                 except that the top shall be enclosed only by some material easily broken in case of
                 fire, or be provided with a vent; and
(b) all means of access to the hoist or lift shall be fitted with doors of fire-resisting
                  materials.
(12) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a hoist or lift is used to comply with
paragraphs (1) to (11).
(13) It shall be the duty of an authorised examiner to —
(a) issue and sign a certificate, in a form determined by the Commissioner, of the result of
                  the examination referred to in paragraph (3);
(b) provide the certificate referred to in sub-paragraph (a) to the occupier of the
                  workplace;
(c) inform the Commissioner —
(i) as soon as is reasonably practicable, if the examination shows that the hoist or
                 lift cannot continue to be used safely unless repairs are made; or
(ii) in any other case, within 28 days of the completion of the examination, of the
      results of the examination in a manner acceptable to the Commissioner; and
(d) exercise all due diligence in making any certification or in conducting any test or
                  examination of any hoist or lift under this regulation.
(14) For the purposes of this regulation, no lifting machine or appliance shall be considered to be a hoist
or lift unless it has a cage or platform and the direction of movement of the cage or platform is restricted
by a guide or guides.
(15) This regulation shall not apply to any lift which has been inspected and tested under the Building
Maintenance and Strata Management (Lift and Building Maintenance) Regulations 2005 (G.N. No. S
194/2005) and for which a Certificate of Lift Maintenance and Testing has been lodged with the
Commissioner of Buildings.
Lifting gears
20. —(1) No lifting gear of whatever material shall be used in a workplace unless an authorised examiner
has —
(a) tested and examined the lifting gear; and
(b) issued and signed a certificate of test and examination, specifying the safe working load of the
lifting gear.
(2) The certificate of test and examination referred to in paragraph (1) (b) shall be kept available for
inspection.
(3) Every lifting gear used in a workplace shall be thoroughly examined by an authorised examiner at
least once every year or at such other intervals as the Commissioner may determine.
(4) Subject to paragraph (5), every lifting gear shall be annealed at the following intervals:
(a) if in regular use —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 11 -
(i) in the case of chains used in connection with molten metal or molten slag, at
                 least once every 6 months; or
(ii) in any other case, at least once every year; or
(b) if not in regular use, only when necessary.
(5) Paragraph (4) shall not apply to the following classes of lifting gear:

(a) chains made of malleable cast iron;
(b) plate link chains;
(c) chains, rings, hooks, shackles and swivels made of steel or of any non-ferrous metal;
(d) pitched chains working on sprocket or pocketed wheels;
(e) rings, hooks, shackles and swivels permanently attached to pitched chains, pulley
                 blocks or weighing machines;
(f) hooks and swivels having screw-threaded parts or ball-bearings or other case-
                 hardened parts;
(g) socket shackles secured to wire ropes by white metal capping;
(h) bordeaux connections;
(i) rope or rope sling; and
(j) any chain or lifting tackle which has been subjected to the heat treatment known as
                 “normalising” instead of annealing.
(6) No lifting gear shall be loaded beyond its safe working load except by an authorised examiner or an
inspector for the purpose of testing such lifting gear.
(7) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a lifting gear is used to comply with
paragraphs (1) to (4) and (6).
(8) Paragraphs (1) and (3) do not apply to any lifting gear which consists of natural fibre ropes or natural
fibre slings.
(9) It shall be the duty of an authorised examiner to —
(a) issue and sign a certificate, in a form determined by the Commissioner, of the result of
                 the examination referred to in paragraph (3);
(b) provide the certificate referred to in sub-paragraph (a) to the occupier of the
                  workplace;
(c) inform the Commissioner —
(i) as soon as is reasonably practicable, if the examination shows that the lifting
                 gear cannot continue to be used safely unless repairs are made; or
(ii) in any other case, within 28 days of the completion of the examination, of the
                  results of the examination in a manner acceptable to the Commissioner; and  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 12 -
(d) exercise all due diligence in making any certification or in conducting any test or
                  examination of any lifting gear under this regulation.
(10) It shall be the duty of the owner of a lifting gear to ensure that it is —
(a) of good construction, sound material, adequate strength and free from patent defect;
                 and
(b) properly maintained.
(11) An inspector may at any time test any lifting gear and may prohibit its further use if he is not satisfied
that the lifting gear is safe for the use to which it is put.
(12) Any person who contravenes any prohibition of an inspector under paragraph (11) shall be guilty of
an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $20,000 or to imprisonment for a term
not exceeding 2 years or to both.
Lifting appliances and lifting machines
21. —(1) No lifting appliance or lifting machine shall be used unless an authorised examiner has —
(a) tested and examined the lifting appliance or lifting machine; and
(b) issued and signed a certificate of test and examination, specifying the safe working
                 load of the lifting appliance or lifting machine.
(2) The certificate of test and examination referred to in paragraph (1) (b) shall be kept available for
inspection.
(3) Every lifting appliance and lifting machine shall be thoroughly examined by an authorised examiner at
least once every year or at such other intervals as the Commissioner may determine.
(4) Every crane, crab and winch shall be provided with a readily accessible and efficient brake or other
safety device —
(a) which will prevent the fall of the load when suspended; and
(b) by which the load can be effectively controlled while being lowered.
(5) Every hand winch shall be fitted with an efficient pawl capable of sustaining the safe working
      load.
(6) Every lifting appliance and lifting machine —
(a) shall be conspicuously marked with its safe working load or loads and a distinctive
                  number or other means of identification; and
(b) in the case of a jib crane so constructed that the safe working load may be varied by
                 the raising or lowering of the jib, shall have an accurate indicator, which must be
                 placed so as to be clearly visible to the driver of the jib crane, that shows the radius of
                 the jib at any time and the safe working load corresponding to that radius.
(7) No lifting appliance or lifting machine shall be loaded beyond its safe working load except by an
authorised examiner or an inspector for the purpose of testing such lifting appliance or lifting machine.
(8) Every lifting appliance and lifting machine shall be adequately and securely supported and —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 13 -
(a) every rope, chain or wire;
(b) every part of a stage, framework or other structure; and
(c) every mast, beam, pole or other article of plant supporting any part of the lifting
                 appliance or lifting machine,
shall be of good construction, sound material and adequate strength, having regard to the nature of the
lifting appliance, its lifting and reaching capacity and the circumstances of its use.
(9) All rails on which a travelling crane moves, and every track on which the carriage of a transporter or
runway moves shall —
(a) be of proper size and adequate strength;
(b) have an even running surface;
(c) be properly laid, adequately supported or suspended; and
(d) be properly maintained.
(10) If any person at work at any place in a workplace is on or near the wheel tracks of an overhead
travelling crane where he would be liable to be struck by the crane, effective measures shall be taken to
ensure that the crane does not approach within 6 metres of that place.
(11) If any person at work in a workplace is not on or near the wheel tracks of an overhead travelling
crane but is in a place above floor level where he would be liable to be struck by an overhead travelling
crane, or by any load carried by the crane, effective measures shall be taken to warn him of the approach
of the crane unless the work of the person is so connected with or dependent on the movements of the
crane as to make the warning unnecessary.
(12) A lifting machine shall not be operated except by —
(a) a person trained and competent to operate that machine; or
(b) a person under training who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person.
(13) No person below the age of 18 years shall be at work —
(a) operating any lifting machine driven by mechanical power; or
(b) giving signals to the operator of any lifting machine.
(14) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which any lifting appliance or lifting machine is
used to comply with paragraphs (1) to (13).
(15) It shall be the duty of an authorised examiner to —
(a) issue and sign a certificate, in a form determined by the Commissioner, of the result of
                 the examination referred to in paragraph (3);
(b) provide the certificate referred to in sub-paragraph (a) to the occupier of the
                 workplace;
(c) inform the Commissioner —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 14 -
(i) as soon as is reasonably practicable, if the examination shows that the lifting
                appliance or lifting machine cannot continue to be used safely unless repairs are
                 made; or
(ii) in any other case, within 28 days of the completion of the examination, of the
                 results of the examination in a manner acceptable to the Commissioner; and
(d) exercise all due diligence in making any certification or in conducting any test or
      examination of any lifting appliance or lifting machine under this regulation.
(16) It shall be the duty of the owner of a lifting appliance or lifting machine to ensure that it is —
(a) of good mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength; and
(b)properly maintained.
(17) An inspector may at any time test any lifting appliance or lifting machine and may prohibit its further
use if he is not satisfied that the lifting appliance or lifting machine is safe for the use to which it is put.
(18) Any person who contravenes any prohibition of an inspector under paragraph (17) shall be guilty of
an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $20,000 or to imprisonment for a term
not exceeding 2 years or to both.
Register of lifting gears, etc.
22. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to keep a register containing such particulars as the
Commissioner may specify with respect to the lifting gears, lifting appliances and lifting machines to which
regulations 20 and 21 apply.
Measures to be taken to prevent falls
23. —(1) All openings in floors of a workplace shall be securely covered or fenced unless the nature of
the work renders such covering or fencing impracticable.
(2) For every staircase in a workplace or which affords a means of exit from the
      workplace, a substantial handrail shall be provided and maintained, which —
(a) if the staircase has an open side, shall be on that side; and
(b) if the staircase has 2 open sides, shall be on both sides.
(3) Any open side of a staircase in a workplace shall be guarded by the provision and
      maintenance of a lower rail or other effective means.
(4) Every teagle opening or similar doorway used for hoisting or lowering goods or materials in a
      workplace, whether by mechanical power or otherwise, shall be —
(a) securely fenced; and
(b) provided with a secure handhold on each side of the opening or doorway.
(5) Any fencing referred to in paragraph (4) shall —
(a) be properly maintained; and
(b) except when goods or materials are being hoisted or lowered at the opening or
                 doorway, be kept in position.  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 15 -
(6) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1) to (5).
(7) Subject to paragraph (8), any person who has to work at a place from which he would be
      liable to fall —
(a) a distance of more than 2 metres; or
(b) into any substance which is likely to cause drowning or asphyxiation, shall be
                  provided with a secure foothold and handhold at the place so far as is reasonably
                  practicable for ensuring his safety.
(8) Where it is not reasonably practicable to provide a secure foothold or handhold as required
      under paragraph (7), other suitable means such as a safety harness or safety belt shall be
      provided for ensuring the safety of every person working at such places.
(9) Where a safety harness or safety belt is provided under paragraph (8) —
(a) there shall be sufficient and secured anchorage, by means of a life line or otherwise for the safety
harness or safety belt; and
(b) the anchorage shall not be lower than the level of the working position of the person wearing the
safety harness or safety belt.
(10) It shall be the duty of the employer of the person referred to in paragraph (7) to comply with
paragraphs (7), (8) and (9).
(11) It shall be the duty of the employer of a person who is exposed to the risk of falling into water and of
drowning to provide —
(a) equipment and means of rescuing and resuscitating drowning persons; and
(b) suitable life jackets or other equipment for keeping such persons afloat in the event
                  that they fall into the water.
(12) No person shall require, permit or direct any person to work at a place from which he would be liable
to fall —
(a) a distance of more than 2 metres; or
(b) into any substance which is likely to cause drowning or asphyxiation,
unless the requirements of paragraphs (7), (8) and (9) have been complied with.
(13) Any person who contravenes paragraph (12) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on
conviction to a fine not exceeding $20,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both.
Storage of goods
24. —(1) All goods, articles and substances which are stored, stacked or placed in a workplace shall be
stored, stacked or placed —
(a) in such manner as not to interfere with —
(i) the adequate distribution of natural or artificial light;
(ii) the proper operation of any machinery or other equipment;
(iii) the unobstructed use of passageways or traffic lanes; and  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 16 -
(iv) the efficient functioning of sprinkler systems or the use of other fire-fighting
                  equipment;
(b) on a firm foundation not liable to settle;
(c) in such manner as not to overload the foundation or floors; and
(d) in such manner, and using such supporting structures as may be necessary, as to
     ensure the stability, and to prevent the collapse, of the goods, articles or substances.
(2) Any goods, articles or substances which are stored, stacked or placed in a workplace shall not be
stored, stacked or placed against a wall or partition unless the wall or partition is of sufficient strength to
withstand the pressure.
(3) If loads are to be suspended from the roof of any workplace, the roof shall be of sufficient strength to
carry the loads.
(4) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1), (2) and (3).
25. Deleted by S 463/2009, wef 01/11/2009.
Precautions with regard to explosive or flammable dust, gas, vapour or substance
26. —(1) Where any process in a plant used in a workplace gives rise to dust, gas, vapour or substance
that may escape into any place of work and the dust, gas, vapour or substance that may escape is of
such a character and is to such an extent as to be liable to explode on ignition —
(a) all reasonably practicable steps shall be taken to prevent such an explosion —
(i) by enclosure of the plant used in the process;
(ii) by removal or prevention of accumulation of the dust, gas, vapour or
      substance;
(iii) by exclusion or effective enclosure of possible sources of ignition; or
(iv) by the use of suitable flame-proof equipment; and
(b) unless the plant in which the process is carried out is so constructed as to withstand
                 the pressure likely to be produced by any such explosion, all reasonably practicable
                 steps shall be taken to restrict the spread and effects of such an explosion by the
                 provision of chokes, baffles and vents, or other equally effective appliances in the
                 plant.
(2) Where any part of a plant in a workplace contains any explosive or flammable gas or vapour under
pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, that part shall not be opened, unless it is positively isolated,
depressurised and vented to a safe location, and where necessary, purged to remove any residual gas or
vapour.
(3) No plant, tank or vessel in a workplace that contains, or has contained, any explosive or flammable
substance shall be subjected to —
(a) any welding, brazing or soldering operation;
(b) any cutting operation which involves the application of heat; or  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 17 -
(c) any operation involving the application of heat for the purpose of taking apart or removing the
plant, tank or vessel or any part of it,
until all reasonably practicable steps have been taken to remove the substance and any fumes, gas or
vapour arising from it, or to render the substance and fumes non-explosive and non-flammable.
(4) If any plant, tank or vessel in a workplace has been subjected to any operation referred to in
paragraph (3) (a), (b) or (c), no explosive or flammable substance shall be allowed to enter the plant, tank
or vessel until the metal has cooled sufficiently to prevent any risk of igniting the substance.
(5) No plant, tank or vessel in a workplace which contains, or has contained, any explosive or flammable
substance shall be subjected to any operation referred to in paragraph (3) (a), (b) or (c) unless such plant,
tank or vessel has been inspected and a competent person has certified that —
(a) it is free from —
(i) any explosive or flammable substance; and
(ii) any fumes, gas or vapour arising from any such substance; or
(b) any explosive or flammable substance, and any fumes, gas or vapour arising from
                 any such substance, have been rendered non-explosive and non-flammable,
                 and that it is safe for the operation to be carried out.
(6) Any certificate issued by a competent person under paragraph (5) in respect of any workplace referred
to in that paragraph shall be kept available at all times for inspection by an inspector.
(7) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace referred to in paragraphs (1) to (6) to comply with
those paragraphs.
(8) It shall be the duty of a competent person to exercise all due diligence in making any inspection and
certification under this regulation.
Conditions before steam boiler, steam receiver, air receiver or refrigerating plant pressure
receiver may be used
27. —(1) Subject to paragraph (2), it shall be the duty of the owner of any steam boiler, steam receiver,
air receiver or refrigerating plant pressure receiver (referred to in this regulation as relevant equipment)
who intends to put the relevant equipment into use in a workplace to —
(a) obtain, in such form and manner as may be determined by the Commissioner, the
      approval of the Commissioner to use the relevant equipment;
(b) ensure that such examination and test by an authorised examiner as may be specified
      by the Commissioner has been satisfactorily carried out;
(c) obtain from the authorised examiner a report of the examination and test referred to in
     sub-paragraph (b), specifying the safe working pressure of the relevant equipment and
     stating the nature of the tests to which the relevant equipment and its fittings have
     been submitted;
(d) keep the report referred to in sub-paragraph (c) available for inspection; and
(e) mark the relevant equipment so as to enable it to be identified as the relevant
     equipment to which the report refers.
(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 18 -
(a) any steam boiler referred to in regulation 28 (20) (a) or (21);
(b) any steam receiver referred to in regulation 29 (11);
(c) any air receiver that has been examined in accordance with regulation 31 (5) and              
      reported on in accordance with regulation 31 (10) or any air receiver referred to in
      regulation 31 (12); and
(d) any refrigerating plant pressure receiver where the safe working pressure does not
      exceed 0.5 bar or the product of its safe working pressure and volume does not
      exceed 100 bar-litre.
Steam boilers
28. —(1) Every steam boiler shall be —
(a) of good construction, sound material and adequate strength;
(b) free from patent defects; and
(c) properly maintained.
(2) Every steam boiler, whether separate or one of a range —
(a) shall have attached to it — (i) a suitable safety valve which is —
(A) separate from and incapable of being isolated by any stop-valve;
(B) adjusted so as to prevent the boiler from being worked at a pressure greater than the safe working
pressure; and
(C) fixed directly, or as close as practicable, to the boiler;
(ii) a suitable stop-valve connecting the boiler to the steam pipe;
(iii) a correct steam pressure gauge, connected to the steam space and easily visible by the boiler
attendant, which —
(A) indicates the pressure of steam in the boiler; and
(B) is marked, in a distinctive colour, with the safe working pressure;
(iv) at least one water gauge of transparent material or any other type approved by the Commissioner
thereof which —
(A) shows the water level in the boiler; and
(B) if the gauge is of the glass tubular type and the working pressure in the boiler normally exceeds 275
kilo-newtons per square metre, is provided with an efficient guard that does not obstruct the reading of
the gauge; and
(v) where it is one of 2 or more boilers, a plate bearing a distinctive number which shall be easily visible;
(b) shall be provided with means for attaching a test pressure gauge; and
(c) shall be provided with —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 19 -
(i) a suitable fusible plug; or
(ii) an efficient low-water alarm device.
(3) Paragraph (2) (a) (ii) shall not apply to any economiser.
(4) Paragraph (2) (a) (iii), (iv) and (v), (b) and (c) shall not apply to any economiser or superheater.
(5) Paragraph (2) (a) (iv), (b) and (c) shall not apply to any steam boiler —
(a) which uses electricity as the only form of power;
(b) which has a maximum steam volume of not more than 40 litres and a safe working
                  pressure of not more than 4 bars; and
(c) into which water is fed manually at the start of the steam generation process and
                 cannot be fed continuously from a potable water main.
(6) Every —
(a) steam boiler referred to in paragraph (5), including all its fittings and attachments,
                 shall be thoroughly examined by an authorised examiner at least once every 2 years
                 and also after any extensive repair; and
(b) surface of the external shell of a steam boiler referred to in paragraph (5) shall be
                  examined by an authorised examiner at least once every 6 years, and for the purpose
                  of such examination, the insulation on the shell shall be removed completely.
(7) For the purposes of paragraph (2), a lever-valve shall not be considered to be a suitable safety valve.
(8) No steam boiler (other than a steam boiler using electricity as the only form of power) shall be
operated except by or under the control of a person who has successfully completed a training course
acceptable to the Commissioner on the operation of that steam boiler.
(9) Any steam boiler using electricity as the only form of power shall —
(a) have attached to it a steam pressure control device which shall be set to the pressure at
                 or below the maximum permissible working pressure of the boiler; and
(b) have a safety valve attached to the boiler which shall be examined and tested by a
                 competent person at least once a month, and the report on every such test shall be
                 recorded and shall be made available for inspection at any time by an inspector.
(10) No person shall enter or be in any steam boiler that is one of a range of 2 or more steam boilers —
(a) unless all inlets through which steam or hot water might otherwise enter the boiler from any
other part of the range are disconnected from the part; or
(b) unless —
(i) all valves or taps controlling such steam and hot water entry are closed and securely locked;
and
(ii) where the boiler has a blow-off pipe in common with one or more other boilers or which
delivers into a common blow-off vessel or sump, the blow-off valve or tap on each such boiler is
so constructed that it can only be opened by a key which —  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 20 -
(A) cannot be removed until the valve or tap is closed; and
(B) is the only key in use for that set of blow-off valves or taps; and
(C) until the particular boiler has been sufficiently cooled to make it safe for the person
                  entering or being in the particular boiler.
(11) No work shall be permitted in any boiler-furnace or boiler- flue until it has been sufficiently cooled by
ventilation or by other means to make it safe for the persons at work to work there.
(12) Subject to paragraphs (6) and (14) and regulation 31A, every steam boiler shall be examined by an
authorised examiner —
(a) at least once every year; and
(b) after any extensive repairs.
(13) It shall be the duty of the owner of a steam boiler used in a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1),
(2), (6) and (8) to (12).
(14) An authorised examiner may, in his discretion, arrange to make the examination referred to in
paragraph (12) within 3 months after the one year has expired.
(15) (Deleted wef 10th Sep 2011)
(16) Any examination in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (12) shall consist —
(a) of an examination of the boiler when it is cold and the interior and exterior have been
                 prepared in the manner specified by the Commissioner; and
(b) except in the case of an economiser or a superheater, of an examination when it is
                 under normal steam pressure which —
(i) must be made as soon as possible after the examination of the boiler when
                cold; and
(ii) must include an examination to determine whether the safety valve is so
                 adjusted as to prevent the boiler from being worked at a pressure greater than
                 the safe working pressure, unless prior written permission has been obtained
                 from the Commissioner.
(17) It shall be the duty of an authorised examiner to —
(a) issue and sign a report, in a form determined by the Commissioner, of the result of the
                 examination referred to in paragraph (12);
(b) provide a copy of the report referred to in sub-paragraph (a) to the owner of the steam
                  boiler;
(c) inform the Commissioner —
(i) as soon as is reasonably practicable, if the examination shows that the steam
                 boiler cannot continue to be used safely unless repairs are carried out; or
(ii) in any other case, within 28 days of the completion of the examination, of the
                  results of the examination in a manner acceptable to the Commissioner; and  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 21 -
(d) exercise all due diligence in making any report or in conducting any examination of
                  any steam boiler under this regulation.
(18) Where the report of any examination under this regulation specifies conditions for securing the safe
working of a steam boiler, it shall be the duty of the owner of the steam boiler to ensure that the boiler is
not used except in accordance with those conditions.
(19) For the purposes of any report to be made under paragraph (17) or regulation 27 (1) (c), the
examination of a steam boiler when it is cold and its examination when it is under steam pressure shall be
treated as separate examinations.
(20) Paragraphs (12) and (14) to (19) shall not apply to —
(a) any steam boiler with a maximum permissible working pressure not exceeding 0.5
                  bar; and
(b) any steam boiler referred to in paragraph (5).
(21) This regulation shall not apply to any steam boiler of a locomotive which is the property of or used by
the railway administered by the Government of Malaysia.
Steam receivers
29. —(1) Every steam receiver shall be —
(a) of good construction, sound material and adequate strength;
(b) free from patent defects; and
(c) properly maintained.
(2) Every steam receiver that is not constructed and maintained to safely withstand either the safe
working pressure of the steam boiler or the maximum pressure which can be obtained in the pipe
connecting the receiver with any source of supply, shall be fitted with —
(a) a suitable reducing valve or other suitable automatic appliance to prevent the safe
     working pressure of the receiver being exceeded;
(b) a suitable safety valve so adjusted as to permit the steam to escape as soon as the safe
      working pressure is exceeded, or a suitable appliance for cutting off automatically the
      supply of steam as soon as the safe working pressure is exceeded;
(c) a correct steam pressure gauge indicating the pressure of steam in the receiver;
(d) a suitable stop-valve; and
(e) except where only one steam receiver is in use, a plate bearing a distinctive number
                 which shall be easily visible.
(3) The safety valve and steam pressure gauge referred to in paragraph (2) shall be fitted either —
(a) on the steam receiver; or
(b) on the supply pipe between the receiver and the reducing valve or other appliance to
                  prevent the safe working pressure from being exceeded.
(4) For the purposes of paragraph (2) (a) to (d), any set of receivers supplied with steam through a single
pipe and forming part of a single machine may be treated as one receiver if the set of receivers is fitted on
the single pipe.  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 22 -
(5) For the purposes of paragraph (2) (a), (b) and (c), any other set of receivers supplied with steam
through a single pipe may be treated as one receiver if the set of receivers is fitted on the single pipe,
provided that the reducing valve or other appliance to prevent the safe working pressure being exceeded
is fitted on that single pipe.
(6) Subject to paragraph (7) and regulation 31A, every steam receiver shall be examined by an
authorised examiner —
(a) at least once every 2 years; and
(b) after any extensive repairs.
(7) An authorised examiner may, in his discretion, arrange to make the examination referred to in
paragraph (6) within 3 months after the 2 years have expired.
(8) (Deleted wef 10th Sep 2011)
(9) It shall be the duty of the owner of a steam receiver used in a workplace to comply with paragraphs
(1), (2), (3) and (6).
(10) It shall be the duty of an authorised examiner to —
(a) issue and sign a report, in a form determined by the Commissioner, of the result of the
     examination referred to in paragraph (6);
(b) provide a copy of the report referred to in sub-paragraph (a) to the owner of the steam
      receiver; and
(c) inform the Commissioner —
(i) as soon as is reasonably practicable, if the examination shows that the steam
     receiver cannot continue to be used safely unless repairs are carried out; or
(ii) in any other case, within 28 days of the completion of the examination, of the
      results of the examination in a manner acceptable to the Commissioner; and
(d) exercise all due diligence in making any report or in conducting any examination of
      any steam receiver under this regulation.
(11) Paragraphs (6), (7), (8) and (10) shall not apply to any steam receiver where the safe working
pressure does not exceed 0.5 bar or the product of its safe working pressure and volume does not
exceed 100 bar-litre.
Steam containers
30. The owner of every steam container used in a workplace shall ensure that the steam container shall
be so maintained as to secure that the outlet is at all times kept open and free from obstruction.
Air receivers
31. —(1) Every air receiver shall be of sound construction and properly maintained.
(2) Every air receiver shall —
(a) be conspicuously marked with its safe working pressure;
(b) in the case of a receiver connected with an air compressing plant —
(i) be so constructed as to withstand with safety the maximum pressure which can
                 be obtained in the compressor; or  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 23 -
(ii) be fitted with a suitable reducing valve or other suitable appliance to prevent
      the safe working pressure of the receiver from being exceeded;
(c) be fitted with a suitable safety valve so adjusted as to permit the air to escape as soon
                 as the safe working pressure is exceeded;
(d) be fitted with an accurate pressure gauge indicating the pressure in the receiver;
(e) except in the case of a receiver in which substance in the form of solid or liquid is
                 stored and from which it is forced by compressed air, be fitted with a suitable
                 appliance for draining the receiver;
(f) be provided with a suitable manhole, handhole or other means which will allow the
     interior to be thoroughly cleaned; and
(g) where there is more than one receiver in use in the workplace, bear a distinguishing
                  mark which shall be easily visible.
(3) For the purpose of paragraph (2) (c) or (d), but subject to paragraph (4), any set of air receivers
supplied with air through a single pipe may be treated as one receiver.
(4) Where a suitable reducing valve or other suitable appliance to prevent the safe working pressure from
being exceeded is required to be fitted on the air receiver, the valve or appliance must be fitted on the
single pipe.
(5) Subject to paragraph (6) and regulation 31A, every air receiver shall be —
(a) thoroughly cleaned; and
(b) examined by an authorised examiner at least once every 2 years.
(6) An authorised examiner may, in his discretion, arrange to make the examination referred to in
paragraph (5) within 3 months after the 2 years have expired.
(7) (Deleted wef 10th Sep 2011)
(8) For the purpose of paragraph (5), where the receiver is of solid drawn construction and is constructed
so that the internal surface cannot be thoroughly examined, a suitable hydraulic test of the receiver shall
be carried out in lieu of internal examination.
(9) It shall be the duty of the owner of an air receiver used in a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1),
(2), (4), (5) and (8).
(10) It shall be the duty of an authorised examiner to —
(a) issue and sign a report, in a form determined by the Commissioner, of the result of the
                  examination referred to in paragraph (5);
(b) provide a copy of the report referred to in sub-paragraph (a) to the owner of the air
                  receiver; and
(c) inform the Commissioner —
(i) as soon as is reasonably practicable, if the examination shows that the air
                 receiver cannot continue to be used safely unless repairs are carried out; or  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 24 -
(ii) in any other case, within 28 days of the completion of the examination, of the  
      results of the examination in a manner acceptable to the Commissioner; and
(d) exercise all due diligence in making any report or in conducting any examination of
     any air receiver under this regulation.
(11) Any person who charges an air receiver used in a workplace from the cylinder of an internal
combustion engine shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding
$20,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both.
(12) Paragraphs (5) to (8) and (10) shall not apply to any air receiver where the safe working pressure
does not exceed 0.5 bar or the product of its safe working pressure and volume does not exceed 100 barlitre.
Extension of time for examination of steam boilers, steam receivers and air receivers
31A.—(1) The Commissioner may, on an application made by the owner of a steam boiler, steam
receiver or air receiver, allow the time delimited by regulation 28, 29 or 31 for the examination by an
authorised examiner of the steam boiler, steam receiver or air receiver, as the case may be, to be
extended subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may determine in any particular case.
(2) An application made under paragraph (1) shall be accompanied by —
(a) the payment of a non-refundable fee to the Commissioner of $115; and
(b) a certificate issued by a competent person appointed by the owner of the steam boiler,
      steam receiver or air receiver, as the case may be, recommending the extended period
      within which the examination of the steam boiler, steam receiver or air receiver is to
      be made.
(3) It shall be the duty of the competent person referred to in paragraph (2)(b) —
(a) before issuing the certificate referred to in paragraph (2)(b), to take so far as is
                  reasonably practicable such measures that are necessary to assess and examine the
                  steam boiler, steam receiver or air receiver, as the case may be, to ensure that it is safe
                  for its intended use during the extended period; and
(b) to issue, as soon as is reasonably practicable, to the owner of the steam boiler, steam
                  receiver or air receiver, as the case may be, the certificate referred to in paragraph
                  (2)(b).
(4) Any competent person referred to in paragraph (2)(b) who, without reasonable excuse, contravenes
any duty imposed on him under paragraph (3) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on
conviction to a fine not exceeding $5,000 and, in the case of a second or subsequent conviction, to a fine
not exceeding $10,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6months or to both.
Periodical examinations when authorised examiner is not available
32. —(1) If any person required under these Regulations to arrange for an authorised examiner to carry
out any periodical examination is unable to locate an authorised examiner willing to carry out the
inspection within the required time, the person shall —
(a) immediately inform the Commissioner of that fact in such form as the Commissioner
                 may specify;
(b) provide the Commissioner with —
(i) particulars of the machinery or plant which is to be examined;  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 25 -
(ii) the date on which the machinery or plant was last examined by an authorised
                  examiner; and
(iii) the particulars of the person who last carried out the examination; and
(c) ensure that the machinery or plant is examined as required by these Regulations by an
                  authorised examiner within 30 days of the Commissioner informing him of an
                  authorised examiner who is willing to carry out the examination.
(2) Any person who complies with paragraph (1) shall not be guilty of any offence in respect of the
contravention of the provision in these Regulations requiring the examination by an authorised examiner.
Pressure vessel containing hazardous substance
33. —(1) It shall be the duty of the owner of a pressure vessel used in any workplace that contains any
hazardous substance to ensure that it is —
(a) of good construction, sound material and adequate strength;
(b) free from patent defects;
(c) properly maintained; and
(d) inspected by a competent person before use and thereafter within such period as the
                 Commissioner may specify.
(2) The owner of a pressure vessel shall —
(a) maintain a record of the inspection referred to in paragraph (1) (d); and
(b) keep such record available for inspection by an inspector.
(3) It shall be the duty of a competent person to exercise all due diligence in conducting any inspection
under this regulation.
Pipes and equipment conveying certain substances
34. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to ensure that every pipe, pump, compressor and
other equipment in the workplace used to convey steam, air, refrigerant or any hazardous substance, and
each part and fitting of, and attachment to, every pipe, pump, compressor and other equipment is —
(a) of good construction, sound material and adequate strength;
(b) free from patent defects; and
(c) properly maintained.
Gas plants
35. —(1) Every gas plant shall be of sound construction and properly maintained.
(2) Every gas plant shall be inspected by a competent person before use and thereafter within such
period as the Commissioner may specify.
(3) Every water-sealed gasholder which has a storage capacity of not less than 25 cubic metres shall be
examined externally by a competent person at least once every 2 years.
(4) A record of the examination referred to in paragraph (3) containing such particulars as the
Commissioner may determine shall be entered in or attached to a register.
(5) No gasholder shall be repaired or demolished except under the direct supervision of a person who —
(a) by his training and experience; and
(b) with his knowledge of the necessary precautions against risks of explosion and of
                 persons being overcome by gas,  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 26 -
is competent to supervise the work.
(6) No gas filling shall be allowed except under the direct supervision of a person who —
(a) by his training and experience; and
(b) with his knowledge of the necessary precautions against any risk,
is competent to supervise the work.
(7) No gas cylinder shall be filled unless —
(a) the cylinder has been examined or tested by a competent person —
(i) where the cylinder is for corrosive gases, at least once every 2 years; or
(ii) where the cylinder is for other gases, at least once every 5 years; and
(b) the result of such examination or test is entered in a register and kept for inspection by an inspector.
(8) It shall be the duty of the owner of a gas plant used in a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1) to
(7).
(9) It shall be the duty of a competent person to exercise all due diligence in conducting any test or
examination under this regulation.
Repair of pressure vessel
36. If repairs to any pressure vessel used in a workplace are likely to cause a dangerous occurrence if
improperly carried out, it shall be the duty of the owner of the pressure vessel to obtain the written
approval of the Commissioner before the repairs are carried out.
Prevention of fire
37. —(1) All reasonably practicable steps shall be taken in a workplace to keep sources of heat or ignition
separate from —
(a) flammable materials in the workplace; or
(b) any process carried on at the workplace that gives rise to any flammable gas or
                  vapour.
(2) There shall be provided and maintained in a workplace means of extinguishing fire which shall be —
(a) readily accessible;
(b) adequate and suitable having regard to the circumstances of each case; and
(c) tested by a competent person at such regular intervals as the Commissioner may
                 determine.
(3) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1) and (2).
Safety provisions in case of fire
38. —(1) There shall be provided in a workplace such means of escape in case of fire for the persons at
work in the workplace —
(a) as may be reasonably required in the circumstances of each case; and
(b) which shall be properly maintained and kept free from obstruction.
(2) The contents of any room in which persons are at work shall be so arranged or disposed that there is
a free passageway for all persons at work in the room to a means of escape in case of fire.  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 27 -
(3) In every workplace, all doors affording any person at work in a workplace means of exit from —
(a) the workplace;
(b) any room in the workplace; or
(c) any building or enclosure in which the workplace is situated,
shall only be locked or fastened in such a manner that the doors can easily and immediately be opened
from the inside.
(4) In every workplace, all doors affording means of exit from the workplace for the persons at work in the
workplace shall, except in the case of sliding doors, be constructed to open outwards.
(5) Every exit affording means of escape in case of fire or giving access to such means of escape shall be
conspicuously marked with an exit sign of an adequate size.
(6) In every workplace, effective steps shall be taken to ensure that all the persons at work in the
workplace are familiar with —
(a) the means of escape in case of fire and their use; and
(b) the routine to be followed in case of fire.
(7) In every workplace, there shall be effective warning devices that —
(a) are capable of being operated without exposing any person to undue risk;
(b) are maintained and tested at least once every month;
(c) give warning in case of fire; and
 (d) are clearly audible throughout the workplace.
(8) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1) to (7).
PART IV  B01
SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO B HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELFARE
Toxic dust, fumes or other contaminants
39. —(1) Where any process or work carried on in any workplace is likely to produce or give off any toxic
dust, fumes, gas, vapour, mist, fibre or other contaminants, all reasonably practicable measures shall be
taken to —
(a) prevent their accumulation in the workplace; and
(b) protect persons at work in the workplace against exposure to the toxic dust, fumes,
                 gas, vapour, mist, fibre or other contaminants through inhalation, ingestion or skin
                 contact.
(2) The measures to be taken under paragraph (1) shall, where appropriate, include one or more of the
following:  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 28 -
(a) carrying out the process or work in isolated areas where persons not connected with
     the process or work are prohibited from being present;
(b) carrying out the process or work in closed vessels or systems to prevent persons at
      work in the workplace from coming into contact with the toxic dust, fumes, gas,
      vapour, mist, fibre or other contaminants;
(c) providing adequate ventilation to dilute the fumes, gas, vapour, mist, fibre or other
                  contaminants;
(d) providing local exhaust ventilation to remove the toxic dust, fumes, gas, vapour, mist,
                  fibre or other contaminants at their sources of emission; and
(e) carrying out the process or work wet.
(3) The local exhaust ventilation system referred to in paragraph (2) (d) shall be so designed, constructed,
operated and maintained that the toxic dust, fumes, gas, vapour, mist, fibre or other contaminants are
safely and effectively removed at the source of generation and are not dispersed or scattered in the
surrounding air.
(4) Accumulation of toxic dust, fibre or waste on the floors, walls, work benches or other surfaces in any
workplace shall be removed by washing, vacuum cleaning or other suitable means in a manner that will
not make the toxic dust, fibre or waste airborne.
(5) No stationary internal combustion engine shall be used unless provision is made for conducting the
exhaust gases from the engine into the open air.
(6) The atmosphere of any place of work in which toxic substances are manufactured, handled, used or
given off shall be tested by a competent person at sufficient intervals to ensure that toxic dust, fumes,
gases, vapours, mists or fibres are not present in quantities liable to injure the health of persons at work.
(7) Notwithstanding paragraph (6), the Commissioner may, by order in writing, require the occupier of a
workplace to engage a competent person —
(a) to monitor, test or assess the environment of any workplace for potential health
      hazards; and
(b) to take air samples in the breathing zone of the persons who are exposed to toxic dust,
        fumes, gases, vapours, mists, fibres or other contaminants by using appropriate  
                 personal sampling equipment.
(8) A record of the result of every test carried out under paragraphs (6) and (7) shall be kept available for
inspection by an inspector for at least 5 years from the date of the test or such other period as the
Commissioner may specify in writing.
(9) Paragraphs (1), (2), (6) and (7) shall not apply to any workplace where —
(a) it is impracticable to comply with such requirements; and
(b) suitable air-supplied breathing apparatus is used by every person at the workplace.
(10) The air-supplied breathing apparatus used under paragraph (9) shall be supplied with air —
(a) of a temperature and humidity comfortable for breathing; and  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 29 -
(b) which has been suitably treated to remove particles of any material, oil mist, vapour,
      odour, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
(11) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1) to (6), (8) and (10).
(12) It shall be the duty of a competent person to exercise all due diligence in conducting any test under
this regulation.
Permissible exposure levels of toxic substances
40. —(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to take all reasonably practicable measures to
ensure that no person at work in the workplace is exposed to the toxic substances specified in the First
Schedule in excess of the permissible exposure levels specified in that Schedule.
(2) Where the PEL (Short Term) of a toxic substance is not specified in the First Schedule, the PEL (Short
Term) of the substance shall be deemed to be exceeded if the time weighted average concentration of
the substance measured over a 15-minute period during any working day exceeds 5 times the PEL (Long
Term) of that substance as specified in that Schedule.
(3) Where there is exposure to more than one toxic substance at the same time and the substances have
similar harmful effects, the permissible exposure level shall be deemed to have been exceeded if the sum
of the ratios between the time weighted average concentration and the permissible exposure level of
each substance exceeds one.
Hazardous substances
41. —(1) All hazardous substances in a workplace shall be placed under the control of a competent
person who has adequate knowledge of the properties of the hazardous substances and their dangers.
(2) Adequate warning notices in languages understood by all persons at work in a workplace specifying
the nature of the danger of the hazardous substances shall be placed —
(a) at all entrances to any workroom; and
(b) at appropriate locations,
where the hazardous substances are used or present.
(3) Persons at work in a workplace who are liable to be exposed to hazardous substances shall be
warned of the hazards involved and the precautionary measures to be taken.
(4) All hazardous substances in a workplace shall be kept, stored, used, handled or disposed of in such a
manner as not to pose a risk to the health and safety of any person at work in the workplace.
(5) It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace to comply with paragraphs (1) to (4).
(6) Any person at work in a workplace who wilfully or recklessly does any act that may result in any other
person being exposed to hazardous substances shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on
conviction to a fine not exceeding $20,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both.
Warning labels
42. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which there is any container of hazardous
substances to ensure that, so far as reasonably practicable, every such container is affixed with one or
more warning labels that conform with —
(a) any Singapore Standard relating to the classification and labelling of hazardous substances; or
(b) such other standards, codes of practice or guidance relating to the classification and labelling of
hazardous substances as is issued or approved by the Council.  WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 30 -
Safety data sheet
43. —(1) Where any hazardous substance is used, handled or stored in a workplace, it shall be the duty
of the occupier of the workplace to —
(a) obtain a safety data sheet of the substance;
(b) assess the information in the safety data sheet and take precautionary measures to
                  ensure the safe use of the substance; and
(c) make available the safety data sheet to all persons at work in the workplace who are
                 liable to be exposed to the substance.
(2) Where any hazardous substance is sold to any person for use in a workplace, it shall be the duty of
the seller or any agent of the seller who caused or procured the sale to provide the buyer with a safety
data sheet for the substance that —
(a) gives accurate and adequate information on the substance; and
(b) conforms with any Singapore Standard relating to safety data sheets or such other standards,
codes of practice or guidance as is issued or approved by the Council.
(3) Any seller or agent of any seller who fails to provide a safety data sheet under paragraph (2) or any
person who provides inaccurate, inadequate or misleading information in a safety data sheet shall be
guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $10,000.
Exclusion from regulations 41, 42 and 43
44.—(1) Regulations 41, 42 and 43 shall not apply in respect of the use, handling or storage in a
workplace, or the sale for use in a workplace, of any hazardous substance that is in a consumer package
and that is intended for retail sale.
(2) In this regulation —
“consumer package” means a container that is intended for retail display and sale to households or
offices, and includes a container that is transported or distributed as part of a larger consolidated
container that consists of a number of identical consumer packages;
“container” means anything in or by which substances are or have been wholly or partly encased,
covered or packed.
PART V  B21
MISCELLANEOUS  B31
Offence
45. Any person who contravenes any provision of these Regulations which imposes a duty on him for
which no penalty is expressly provided shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a
fine not exceeding $20,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both.
FIRST SCHEDULE  B41
Regulations 2 and 40
PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVELS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES  B51WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 31 -
Toxic Substance   Permissible Exposure Level (PEL)
    PEL
(Long Term)
    PEL
(Short Term)
  ppm
a
   mg/m
3 b
    ppm
a
    mg/m
3 b
Acetaldehyde  —   —    25    45
Acetic acid  10   25    15    37
Acetic anhydride  5   21    —    —
Acetone  750   1780    1000    2380
Acetone cyanohydrin  —   —    4.7    5
Acetonitrile  40   67    60    101
Acetophenone  10   49    —    —
Acetylene tetrabromide  1   14    —    —
Acrolein  0.1   0.23    0.3    0.69
Acrylamide  —   0.03    —    —
Acrylic acid  2   5.9    —    —
Acrylonitrile (Vinyl cyanide)  2   4.3    —    —
Adipic acid  —   5    —    —
Adiponitrile  2   8.8    —    —
Aldrin  —   0.25    —    —
Allyl alcohol  2   4.8    4    9.5
Allyl chloride  1   3    2    6
Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)  5   23    10    47
Allyl propyl disulfide  2   12    3    18
Aluminium            
Metal dust  —   10    —    —
Pyro powders, as Al  —   5    —    —
Welding fumes, as Al  —   5    —    —
Soluble salts, as Al  —   2    —    —
Alkyls, as Al  —   2    —    —
Aluminium oxide  —   10    —    —
2-Aminopyridine  0.5   1.9    —    —
Amitrole  —   0.2    —    —
Ammonia  25   17    35    24
Ammonium chloride fume  —   10    —    20
Ammonium perfluorooctanoate  —   0.01    —    —
Ammonium sulfamate  —   10    —    —
n-Amyl acetate  100   532    —    —
sec-Amyl acetate  125   665    —    —
Aniline  2   7.6    —    —
Anisidine  0.1   0.5    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 32 -
Antimony and compounds, as Sb  —   0.5    —    —
Antimony trioxide, as Sb  —   0.5    —    —
Arsenic, elemental and inorganic compounds, as
As
 —   0.01    —    —
Arsine  0.05   0.16    —    —
Asbestos (all forms)  —   0.1 (fibre/cc)   —    —
Asphalt (petroleum) fumes  —   5    —    —
Atrazine  —   5    —    —
Azinphos-methyl  —   0.2    —    —
Barium, soluble compounds, as Ba  —   0.5    —    —
Barium sulfate  —   10    —    —
Benomyl  0.84   10    —    —
Benzene  1   3.18    —    —
Benzoyl peroxide  —   5    —    —
Benzyl chloride  1   5.2    —    —
Beryllium and compounds, as Be  —   0.002    —    —
Biphenyl  0.2   1.3    —    —
Bismuth telluride,            
Undoped  —   10    —    —
Se-doped  —   5    —    —
Borates, tetra sodium salts            
Anhydrous  —   1    —    —
Decahydrate  —   5    —    —
Pentahydrate  —   1    —    —
Boron oxide  —   10    —    —
Boron tribromide  —   —    1    10
Boron trifluoride  —   —    1    2.8
Bromacil  —   10    —    —
Bromine  0.1   0.66    0.2    1.3
Bromine pentafluoride  0.1   0.72    —    —
Bromoform  0.5   5.2    —    —
1,3-Butadiene  2   4.4    —    —
Butane  800   1900    —    —
n-Butanol  —   —    50    152
sec-Butanol  100   303    —    —
tert-Butanol  100   303    —    —
2-Butoxyethanol (EGBE)  25   121    —    —
n-Butyl acetate  150   713    200    950
sec-Butyl acetate  200   950    —    —
tert-Butyl acetate  200   950    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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n-Butyl acrylate  10   52    —    —
n-Butylamine  —   —    5    15
tert-Butyl chromate, as CrO3  —   —    —    0.1
n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE)  25   133    —    0.1
n-Butyl lactate  5   30    —    —
Butyl mercaptan (Butanethiol)  0.5   1.8    —    —
o-sec-Butylphenol  5   31    —    —
p-tert-Butyl toluene  1   6.1    —    —
Cadmium, as Cd                        
Elemental  —   0.01    —    —
Compounds  —   0.002    —    —
Calcium carbonate (Limestone, Marble)  —   10    —    —
Calcium chromate, as Cr  —   0.001    —    —
Calcium cyanamide  —   0.5    —    —
Calcium cyanide  —   —    —    5
Calcium hydroxide  —   5    —    —
Calcium oxide  —   2    —    —
Calcium silicate  —   10    —    —
Calcium sulfate  —   10    —    —
Camphor  2   12    3    19
Caprolactam            
Dust  —   1    —    3
Vapour  5   23    10    46
Captafol  —   0.1    —    —
Captan  —   5    —    —
Carbaryl  —   5    —    —
Carbofuran  —   0.1    —    —
Carbon black  —   3.5    —    —
Carbon dioxide  5000   9000    30,000    54,000
Carbon disulfide  10   31    —    —
Carbon monoxide  25   29    —    —
Carbon tetrabromide  0.1   1.4    0.3    4.1
Carbon tetrachloride
(Tetrachloromethane)
 5   31    10    63
Carbonyl fluoride  2   5.4    5    13
Catechol (Pyrocatechol)  5   23    —    —
Cellulose  —   10    —    —
Cesium hydroxide  —   2    —    —
Chlordane  —   0.5    —    —
Chlorinated camphene (Toxaphene)  —   0.5    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 34 -
Chlorinated diphenyl oxide  —   0.5    —    —
Chlorine  0.5   1.5    1    2.9
Chlorine dioxide  0.1   0.28    0.3    0.83
Chlorine trifluoride  —   —    0.1    0.38
Chloroacetaldehyde  —   —    1    3.2
Chloroacetone  —   —    1    3.8
2-Chloroacetophenone (Phenacyl chloride)  0.05   0.32    —    —
Chloroacetyl chloride  0.05   0.23    0.15    0.69
Chlorobenzene (Monochlorobenzene)  10   46    —    —
o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile  —   —    0.05    0.39
Chlorobromomethane
(Bromochloromethane)
 200   1060    —    —
Chlorodifluoromethane  1000   3540    —    —
Chlorodiphenyl (42% chlorine)  —   1    —    —
Chlorodiphenyl (54% chlorine)  —   0.5    —    —
Chloroform (Trichloromethane)  10   49    —    —
bis (Chloromethyl) ether  0.001   0.0047    —    —
1-Chloro-1-nitropropane  2   10    —    —
Chloropentafluoroethane  1000   6320    —    —
Chloropicrin (Trichloronitromethane)  0.1   0.67    —    —
β-Chloroprene (2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene)  10   36    —    —
2-Chloropropionic acid  0.1   0.44    —    —
o-Chlorostyrene  50   283    75    425
o-Chlorotoluene  50   259    —    —
Chlorpyrifos  —   0.2    —    —
Chromium, metal and inorganic compounds, as
Cr
           
Metal and Cr III compounds  —   0.5    —    —
Water-soluble Cr VI compounds  —   0.05    —    —
Insoluble Cr VI compounds  —   0.01    —    —
Chromyl chloride  0.025   0.16    —    —
Clopidol  —   10    —    —
Coal, respirable dust  —   2    —    —
Coal tar pitch volatiles (Polycylic aromatic
hydrocarbons), as benzene solubles
 —   0.2    —    —
Cobalt, elemental and inorganic compounds, as
Co
 —   0.02    —    —
Cobalt carbonyl, as Co  —   0.1    —    —
Cobalt hydrocarbonyl, as Co  —   0.1    —    —
Copper            
Fume  —   0.2    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Dusts and mists, as Cu  —   1    —    —
Cotton dust, raw  —   0.2    —    —
Cresol  5   22    —    —
Crotonaldehyde  2   5.7    —    —
Crufomate  —   5    —    —
Cumene  50   246    —    —
Cyanamide  —   2    —    —
Cyanogen  10   21    —    —
Cyanogen chloride  —   —    0.3    0.75
Cyclohexane  300   1030    —    —
Cyclohexanol  50   206    —    —
Cyclohexanone  25   100    —    —
Cyclohexene  300   1010    —    —
Cyclohexylamine  10   41    —    —
Cyclonite  —   1.5    —    —
Cyclopentadiene  75   203    —    —
Cyclopentane  600   1720    —    —
Cyhexatin (Tricyclo hexyltin)  —   5    —    —
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)  —   1    —    —
Decaborane  0.05   0.25    0.15    0.75
Demeton  0.01   0.11    —    —
Diacetone alcohol
(4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone)
 50   238    —    —
Diazinon  —   0.1    —    —
Diazomethane  0.2   0.34    —    —
Diborane  0.1   0.11    —    —
2-N-Dibutylaminoethanol  0.5   3.5    —    —
Dibutyl phenyl phosphate  0.3   3.5    —    —
Dibutyl phosphate  1   8.6    2    17
Dibutyl phthalate  —   5    —    —
Dichloroacetylene  —   —    0.1    0.39
o-Dichlorobenzene  25   150    50    301
p-Dichlorobenzene  10   60    —    —
1,4-Dichloro-2-butene  0.005   0.025    —    —
Dichlorodifluoromethane  1000   4950    —    —
1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin  —   0.2    —    0.4
1,1-Dichloroethane
(Ethylidene chloride)
 100   405    —    —
1,2-Dichloroethylene
(Acetylene dichloride)
 200   793    —    —
Dichloroethyl ether  5   29    10    58 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 36 -
Dichlorofluoromethane  10   42    —    —
1,1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane  2   12    —    —
1,3-Dichloropropene  1   4.5    —    —
2,2-Dichloropropionic acid  1   5.8    —    —
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane  1000   6990    —    —
Dichlorvos  0.1   0.90    —    —
Dicrotophos  —   0.25    —    —
Dicyclopentadiene  5   27    —    —
Dicyclopentadienyl iron  —   10    —    —
Dieldrin  —   0.25    —    —
Diethanolamine  0.46   2    —    —
Diethylamine  5   15    15    45
2-Diethylaminoethanol  2   9.6    —    —
Diethylene triamine  1   4.2    —    —
Diethyl ketone  200   705    —    —
Diethyl phthalate  —   5    —    —
Difluorodibromomethane  100   858    —    —
Diglycidyl ether (DGE)  0.1   0.53    —    —
Diisobutyl ketone (2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone)  25   145    —    —
Diisopropylamine  5   21    —    —
N,N-Dimethyl acetamide  10   36    —    —
Dimethylamine  5   9.2    15    27.6
Dimethylaniline
(N,N-Dimethylaniline)
 5   25    10    50
Dimethylformamide  10   30    —    —
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine  0.5   1.2    —    —
Dimethylphthalate  —   5    —    —
Dimethyl sulfate  0.1   0.52    —    —
Dinitolmide (3,5-Dinitro-o-toluamide)  —   5    —    —
Dinitrobenzene  0.15   1.0    —    —
Dinitro-o-cresol  —   0.2    —    —
Dinitrotoluene  —   0.15    —    —
Dioxane  25   90    —    —
Dioxathion  —   0.2    —    —
Diphenylamine  —   10    —    —
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether  100   606    150    909
Dipropyl ketone  50   233    —    —
Diquat            
Total dust  —   0.5    —    —
Respirable dust  —   0.1    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 37 -
Di-sec-octyl phthalate (Di (-2-ethylhexyl)
phthalate)
 —   5    —    10
Disulfiram  —   2    —    —
Disulfoton  —   0.1    —    —
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol  —   10    —    —
Diuron  —   10    —    —
Divinyl benzene  10   53    —    —
Emery  —   10    —    —
Endosulfan  —   0.1    —    —
Endrin  —   0.1    —    —
Enflurane  75   566    —    —
Epichlorohydrin (1-Chloro-2, 3-epoxypropane)  2   7.6    —    —
EPN  —   0.1    —    —
Ethanol (Ethyl alcohol)  1000   1880    —    —
Ethanolamine  3   7.5    6    15
Ethion  —   0.4    —    —
2-Ethoxyethanol (EGEE)  5   18    —    —
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (EGEEA)  5   27    —    —
Ethyl acetate  400   1440    —    —
Ethyl acrylate  5   20    15    61
Ethylamine  5   9.2    15    27.6
Ethyl amyl ketone (5-Methyl-3-heptanone)  25   131    —    —
Ethyl benzene  100   434    125    543
Ethyl bromide  5   22    —    —
Ethyl butyl ketone (3-Heptanone)  50   234    —    —
Ethyl chloride  1000   2640    —    —
Ethylene chlorohydrin  —   —    1    3.3
Ethylenediamine (1,2-Diaminoethane)  10   25    —    —
Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)  10   40    —    —
Ethylene glycol  —   —    50    127
Ethylene glycol dinitrate  0.05   0.31    —    —
Ethylene oxide  1   1.8    —    —
Ethylenimine  0.5   0.88    —    —
Ethyl ether (Diethyl ether)  400   1210    500    1520
Ethyl formate  100   303    —    —
Ethylidene norbornene  —   —    5    25
Ethyl mercaptan (Ethanethiol)  0.5   1.3    —    —
N-Ethylmorpholine  5   24    —    —
Ethyl silicate  10   85    —    —
Fenamiphos  —   0.1    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 38 -
Fensulfothion  —   0.1    —    —
Fenthion  —   0.2    —    —
Ferbam  —   10    —    —
Ferrovanadium dust  —   1    —    3
Fibrous glass dust  —   10    —    —
Fluorides, as F  —   2.5    —    —
Fluorine  1   1.6    2    3.1
Fonofos  —   0.1    —    —
Formaldehyde  —   —    0.3    0.37
Formamide  10   18    —    —
Formic acid  5   9.4    10    19
Furfural  2   7.9    —    —
Furfuryl alcohol  10   40    15    60
Gasoline  300   890    500    1480
Germanium tetrahydride  0.2   0.63    —    —
Glutaraldehyde  —   —    0.2    0.82
Glycerin mist  —   10    —    —
Glycidol (2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol)  25   76    —    —
Grain dust (oat, wheat, barley)  —   4    —    —
Graphite, respirable dust  —   2    —    —
Hafnium  —   0.5    —    —
Halothane  50   404    —    —
Heptachlor and Heptachlor epoxide  —   0.05    —    —
Heptane  400   1640    500    2050
Hexachlorobenzene  —   0.025    —    —
Hexachlorobutadiene  0.02   0.21    —    —
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene  0.01   0.11    —    —
Hexachloroethane  1   9.7    —    —
Hexachloronaphthalene  —   0.2    —    —
Hexafluoroacetone  0.1   0.68    —    —
Hexamethylene diisocyanate  0.005   0.034    —    —
1,6-Hexanediamine  0.5   2.3    —    —
Hexane (n-Hexane)  50   176    —    —
Other isomers  500   1760    1000    3500
sec-Hexyl acetate  50   295    —    —
Hexylene glycol  —   —    25    121
Hydrazine  0.1   0.13    —    —
Hydrogenated terphenyls  0.5   4.9    —    —
Hydrogen bromide  —   —    3    9.9
Hydrogen chloride  —   —    5    7.5 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Hydrogen cyanide  —   —    4.7    5
Hydrogen fluoride  —   —    3    2.6
Hydrogen peroxide  1   1.4    —    —
Hydrogen selenide  0.05   0.16    —    —
Hydrogen sulfide  10   14    15    21
Hydroquinone (Dihydroxy benzene)  —   2    —    —
2-Hydroxypropyl acrylate  0.5   2.8    —    —
Indene  10   48    —    —
Indium and compounds, as In  —   0.1    —    —
Iodine  —   —    0.1    1.0
Iodoform  0.6   10    —    —
Iron oxide dust and fume, as Fe  —   5    —    —
Iron pentacarbonyl, as Fe  0.1   0.23    0.2    0.45
Iron salts, soluble, as Fe  —   1    —    —
Isoamyl acetate  100   532    —    —
Isoamyl alcohol  100   361    125    452
Isobutyl acetate  150   713    —    —
Isobutyl alcohol  50   152    —    —
Isooctyl alcohol  50   266    —    —
Isophorone  —   —    5    28
Isophorone diisocyanate  0.005   0.045    —    —
Isoproproxyethanol  25   106    —    —
Isopropyl acetate  250   1040    310    1290
Isopropyl alcohol  400   983    500    1230
Isopropylamine  5   12    10    24
N-Isopropylaniline  2   11    —    —
Isopropyl ether  250   1040    310    1300
Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE)  50   238    75    356
Kaolin, respirable dust  —   2    —    —
Ketene  0.5   0.86    1.5    2.6
Lead, inorganic dusts and fumes, as Pb  —   0.15    —    —
Lead arsenate  —   0.15    —    —
Lead chromate            
as Pb  —   0.05    —    —
as Cr  —   0.012    —    —
Lindane  —   0.5    —    —
Lithium hydride  —   0.025    —    —
L.P.G. (Liquified petroleum gas)  1000   1800    —    —
Magnesite  —   10    —    —
Magnesium oxide fume  —   10    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Malathion  —   10    —    —
Maleic anhydride  0.25   1.0    —    —
Manganese, as Mn            
Dust and compounds  —   1    —    —
Fume  —   1    —    3
Manganese cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, as Mn  —   0.1    —    —
Mercury            
Alkyl compounds  —   0.01    —    0.03
Aryl compounds  —   0.1    —    —
Inorganic forms including metallic mercury  —   0.025    —    —
Mesityl oxide  15   60    25    100
Methacrylic acid  20   70    —    —
Methanol (Methyl alcohol)  200   262    250    328
Methomyl  —   2.5    —    —
Methoxychlor  —   10    —    —
2-Methyoxyethanol (EGME)  5   16    —    —
2-Methoxyethyl acetate (Ethylene glycol methyl
ethyl acetate, EGMEA)
 5   24    —    —
4-Methoxyphenol  —   5    —    —
Methyl acetate  200   606    250    757
Methyl acetylene (Propyne)  1000   1640    —    —
Methyl acetylene-propadiene mixture
(MAPP)
 1000   1640    1250    2050
Methyl acrylate  10   35    —    —
Methylacrylonitrile  1   2.7    —    —
Methylal (Dimethoxymethane)  1000   3110    —    —
Methylamine  5   6.4    15    19
Methyl n-amyl ketone (2-Heptanone)  50   233    —    —
N-Methyl aniline  0.5   2.2    —    —
Methyl bromide  5   19    —    —
Methyl-tert butyl ether  40   144    —    —
Methyl n-butyl ketone (2-Hexanone)  5   20    —    —
Methyl chloride  50   103    100    207
Methyl 2-cyanoacrylate  2   9.1    4    18
Methylcyclohexane  400   1610    —    —
Methylcyclohexanol  50   234    —    —
0-Methylcyclohexanone  50   229    75    344
2-Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese
tricarbonyl, as Mn
 —   0.2    —    —
Methyl demeton  —   0.5    —    —
Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI, Diphenyl  0.005   0.051    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
- 41 -
methane diisocyanate)
Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane)  50   174    —    —
4,4’-methylene bis (2-chloroaniline)
[MOCA]
 0.01   0.11    —    —
Methylene bis (4-cyclo-hexylisocyanate)  0.005   0.054    —    —
4,4’-Methylene dianiline  0.1   0.81    —    —
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone)  200   590    300    885
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide  —   —    0.2    1.5
Methyl formate  100   246    150    368
Methyl hydrazine  —   —    0.2    0.38
Methyl iodide  2   12    —    —
Methyl isoamyl ketone  50   234    —    —
Methyl isobutyl carbinol (Methyl amyl alcohol)  25   104    40    167
Methyl isobutyl ketone (Hexone)  50   205    75    307
Methyl isocyanate  0.02   0.047    —    —
Methyl isopropyl ketone  200   705    —    —
Methyl mercaptan (Methanethiol)  0.5   0.98    —    —
Methyl methacrylate  100   410    —    —
Methyl parathion  —   0.2    —    —
Methyl propyl ketone (2-Pentanone)  200   705    250    881
Methyl silicate  1   6    —    —
αMethyl styrene  50   242    100    483
Metribuzin  —   5    —    —
Mevinphos (Phosdrin)  0.01   0.092    0.03    0.27
Mica, respirable dust  —   3    —    —
Mineral wool fiber  —   10    —    —
Molybdenum, as Mo            
Soluble compounds  —   5    —    —
Insoluble compounds  —   10    —    —
Monocrotophos  —   0.25    —    —
Morpholine  20   71    —    —
Naled (Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2,2 dichloroethyl
phosphate)
 —   3    —    —
Naphtha  300   1370    —    —
Naphthalene  10   52    15    79
Nickel            
Metal  —   1    —    —
Insoluble compounds, as Ni  —   1    —    —
Soluble compounds, as Ni  —   0.1    —    —
Nickel carbonyl, as Ni  0.05   0.12    —    —
Nickel sulfide, as Ni  —   1    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Nicotine  —   0.5    —    —
Nitrapyrin (2-Chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine)  —   10    —    20
Nitric acid  2   5.2    4    10
Nitric oxide  25   31    —    —
p-Nitroaniline  —   3    —    —
Nitrobenzene  1   5    —    —
p-Nitrochlorobenzene  0.1   0.64    —    —
Nitroethane  100   307    —    —
Nitrogen dioxide  3   5.6    5    9.4
Nitrogen trifluoride  10   29    —    —
Nitroglycerin (NG)  0.05   0.46    —    —
Nitromethane  20   50    —    —
1-Nitropropane  25   91    —    —
2-Nitropropane  10   36    —    —
Nitrotoluene  2   11    —    —
Nitrous oxide  50   90    —    —
Nonane  200   1050    —    —
Nuisance particulates  —   10    —    —
Octachloronaphthalene  —   0.1    —    0.3
Octane  300   1400    375    1750
Oil Mist, mineral  —   5    —    10
Osmium tetroxide, as Os  0.0002   0.0016    0.0006    0.0047
Oxalic acid  —   1    —    2
Oxygen difluoride  —   —    0.05    0.11
Ozone  —   —    0.1    0.20
Paraffin wax fume  —   2    —    —
Paraquat            
Total dust  —   0.5    —    —
Respirable dust  —   0.1    —    —
Parathion  —   0.1    —    —
Pentaborane  0.005   0.013    0.015    0.039
Pentachloronaphthalene  —   0.5    —    —
Pentachloronitrobenzene  —   0.5    —    —
Pentachlorophenol  —   0.5    —    —
Pentaerythritol  —   10    —    —
Pentane  600   1770    750    2210
Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene)  25   170    100    685
Perchloromethyl mercaptan  0.1   0.76    —    —
Perchloryl fluoride  3   13    6    25
Perfluoroisobutylene  —   —    0.01    0.082 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Perlite  —   10    —    —
Phenol  5   19    —    —
Phenothiazine  —   5    —    —
Phenylenediamine  —   0.1    —    —
Phenyl ether  1   7    2    14
Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE)  0.1   0.6    —    —
Phenylhydrazine  0.1   0.44    —    —
Phenyl mercaptan  0.5   2.3    —    —
Phenylphosphine  —   —    0.05    0.23
Phorate  —   0.05    —    0.2
Phosgene  0.1   0.40    —    —
Phosphine  0.3   0.42    1    1.4
Phosphoric acid  —   1    —    3
Phosphorus  0.02   0.1    —    —
Phosphorus oxychloride  0.1   0.63    —    —
Phosphorus pentachloride  0.1   0.85    —    —
Phosphorus pentasulfide  —   1    —    3
Phosphorus trichloride  0.2   1.1    0.5    2.8
Phthalic anhydride  1   6.1    —    —
m-Phthalodinitrile  —   5    —    —
Picloram  —   10    —    —
Picric acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol)  —   0.1    —    —
Pindone (2-Pivalyl-1,3-indandione)  —   0.1    —    —
Piperazine dihydrochloride  —   5    —    —
Platinum            
Metal  —   1    —    —
Soluble salts, as Pt  —   0.002    —    —
Portland cement  —   10    —    —
Potassium cyanide  —   —    —    5
Potassium hydroxide  —   —    —    2
Propargyl alcohol  1   2.3    —    —
β-Propiolactone  0.5   1.5    —    —
Propionic acid  10   30    —    —
Propoxur  —   0.5    —    —
n-Propyl acetate  200   835    250    1040
n-Propyl alcohol  200   492    250    614
Propylene dichloride
(1,2-Dichloropropane)
 75   347    110    508
Propylene glycol dinitrate  0.05   0.34    —    —
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether  100   369    150    553 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Propylene imine  2   4.7    —    —
Propylene oxide (1,2-Epoxypropane)  20   48    —    —
n-Propyl nitrate  25   107    40    172
Pyrethrum  —   5    —    —
Pyridine  5   16    —    —
Quinone  0.1   0.44    —    —
Resorcinol  10   45    20    90
Rhodium            
Metal  —   1    —    —
Insoluble compounds, as Rh  —   1    —    —
Soluble compounds, as Rh  —   0.01    —    —
Ronnel  —   10    —    —
Rotenone  —   5    —    —
Rouge  —   10    —    —
Selenium and compounds, as Se  —   0.2    —    —
Selenium hexafluoride  0.05   0.16    —    —
Sesone  —   10    —    —
Silica-Amorphous            
Diatomaceous earth (uncalcined)  —   10    —    —
Precipitated silica  —   10    —    —
Silica, fume, respirable dust  —   2    —    —
Silica, fused, respirable dust  —   0.1    —    —
Silica gel  —   10    —    —
Silica-Crystalline            
Cristobalite, respirable dust  —   0.05    —    —
Quartz, respirable dust  —   0.1    —    —
Tridymite, respirable dust  —   0.05    —    —
Tripoli, respirable dust  —   0.1    —    —
Silicon  —   10    —    —
Silicon carbide  —   10    —    —
Silicon tetrahydride  5   6.6    —    —
Silver            
Metal  —   0.1    —    —
Soluble compounds, as Ag  —   0.01    —    —
Soapstone            
Respirable dust  —   3    —    —
Total dust  —   6    —    —
Sodium azide as Hydrazoic acid  —   —    —    0.29
vapour  —   —    0.11    —
Sodium bisulfite  —   5    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Sodium cyanide  —   —    —    5
Sodium fluoroacetate  —   0.05    —    —
Sodium hydroxide  —   —    —    2
Sodium metabisulfite  —   5    —    —
Starch  —   10    —    —
Stearates  —   10    —    —
Stibine  0.1   0.51    —    —
Stoddard solvent  100   525    —    —
Strontium chromate  —   0.0005    —    —
Strychnine  —   0.15    —    —
Styrene, monomer (Phenylethylene, vinyl
benzene)
 50   213    100    426
Subtilisins  —   —    —    0.00006
Sucrose  —   10    —    —
Sulfometuron methyl  —   5    —    —
Sulfotep  —   0.2    —    —
Sulfur dioxide  2   5.2    5    13
Sulfur hexafluoride  1000   5970    —    —
Sulfuric acid  —   1    —    3
Sulfur monochloride  —   —    1    5.5
Sulfur pentafluoride  —   —    0.01    0.10
Sulfur tetrafluoride  —   —    0.1    0.44
Sulfuryl fluoride  5   21    10    42
Sulprofos  —   1    —    —
Talc  —   2    —    —
Tantalum, metal and oxide, as Ta  —   5    —    —
Tellurium and compounds, as Te  —   0.1    —    —
Tellurium hexafluoride  0.02   0.10    —    —
Temephos  —   10    —    —
Terephthalic acid  —   10    —    —
TEPP  0.004   0.047    —    —
Terphenyls  —   —    0.53    5
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane  500   4170    —    —
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane  500   4170    —    —
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane  1   6.9    —    —
Tetrachloronaphthalene  —   2    —    —
Tetraethyl lead, as Pb  —   0.1    —    —
Tetrahydrofuran  200   590    250    737
Tetramethyl lead, as Pb  —   0.15    —    —
Tetramethyl succinonitrile  0.5   2.8    —    — WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Tetranitromethane  0.005   0.04    —    —
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate  —   5    —    —
Tetryl (2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl methylnitramine)  —   1.5    —    —
Thallium, elemental and soluble compounds, as
Ti
 —   0.1    —    —
4,4’-Thiobis (6-tert-butyl-m-cresol)  —   10    —    —
Thioglycolic acid  1   3.8    —    —
Thioyl chloride  —   —    1    4.9
Thiram  —   1    —    —
Tin            
Metal  —   2    —    —
Oxide inorganic compounds, as Sn  —   2    —    —
Organic compounds, as Sn  —   0.1    —    0.2
Titanium dioxide  —   10    —    —
Toluene (Toluol)  50   188    —    —
Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)  0.005   0.036    0.02    0.14
Toluidine  2   8.8    —    —
Tributyl phosphate  0.2   2.2    —    —
Trichloroacetic acid  1   6.7    —    —
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene  —   —    5    37
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methyl chloroform)  350   1910    450    2460
1,1,2-Trichloroethane  10   55    —    —
Trichloroethylene  50   269    100    537
Trichlorofluoromethane  —   —    1000    5620
Trichloronaphthalene  —   5    —    —
1,2,3-Trichloropropane  10   60    —    —
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane  1000   7670    1250    9590
Triethanolamine  —   5    —    —
Triethylamine  1   4.1    5    20.7
Trifluorobromomethane  1000   6090    —    —
Trimellitic anhydride  —   —    —    0.04
Trimethylamine  5   12    15    36
Trimethyl benzene  25   123    —    —
Trimethyl phosphate  2   10    —    —
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)  —   0.5    —    —
Triorthocresyl phosphate  —   0.1    —    —
Triphenyl amine  —   5    —    —
Triphenyl phosphate  —   3    —    —
Tungsten, as W            
Insoluble compounds  —   5    —    10 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH (GENERAL PROVISIONS) REGULATIONS
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Soluble compounds  —   1    —    3
Turpentine  100   566    —    —
Uranium            
Soluble & Insoluble compounds, as U  —   0.2    —    0.6
n-Valeraldehyde  50   176    —    —
Vanadium pentoxide Respirable dust or fume  —   0.05    —    —
Vegetable oil mists  —   10    —    —
Vinyl acetate  10   35    15    53
Vinyl bromide  5   22    —    —
Vinyl chloride (Chloroethylene)  5   13    —    —
4-Vinyl cyclohexene  0.1   0.4    —    —
Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide  10   57    —    —
Vinylidene chloride (1,1-Dichloroethylene)  5   20    20    79
Vinyl toluene  50   242    100    483
Warfarin  —   0.1    —    —
Welding fumes  —   5    —    —
Wood dust            
Hard wood  —   1    —    —
Soft wood  —   5    —    10
Xylene  100   434    150    651
m-Xylene α, α1-diamine  —   —    —    0.1
Xylidine (dimethylaminobenzene)  0.5   2.5    —    —
Yttrium metal and compounds, as Y  —   1    —    —
Zinc chloride fume  —   1    —    2
Zinc chromates, as Cr  —   0.01    —    —
Zinc oxide            
Fume  —   5    —    10
Dust  —   10    —    —
Zirconium and compounds, as Zr  —   5    —    10
                         
Notes:
(a) ppm means parts of the substance per million parts of contaminated air by volume; and
(b) mg/m
3
 means milligrammes of the substance per cubic metre of contaminated air.
SECOND SCHEDULE  B61
Deleted by S 609/2009, wef 01/03/2010.