Thursday, May 3, 2012

CODE OF PRACTICE ON POLLUTION CONTROL

CODE OF PRACTICE ON POLLUTION CONTROL
First Edition Jan 1994
Second Edition Jan 1996
Third Edition Feb 2000
Third Edition Feb 2001
(with amendments) Jun 2002
Feb 2004
Feb 2009
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
1
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
TERMINOLOGY
1 JUDICIOUS SITING OF INDUSTRIES
2 REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIES, WAREHOUSES AND BUSINESS
PARKS
2.1 Clean Industry
2.2 Light Industry (amended in Jun 2002)
2.3 General Industry
2.4 Special Industry
2.5 Warehouses
2.6 Business Parks
3 CLEARANCE, WRITTEN APPROVAL, LICENCE AND PERMIT
REQUIRED TO OPERATE A FACTORY
3.1 Clearance on the Use of Industrial Premises
3.2 Written Approval
3.3 Licence
3.4 Permit (amended in Feb 2001)
4 POLLUTION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
4.1 Water Pollution Control (amended in Jun 2002)
4.2 Air Pollution Control
4.3 Noise Pollution Control
5 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES CONTROL (amended in Jun 2002)
6 TOXIC INDUSTRIAL WASTES CONTROL
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
2
7 CONTROL OF LAND POLLUTION AND REMEDIATION OF
CONTAMINATED SITES (amended in Jun 2002)
7.1 Pollutive Activities
7.2 Site Assessment Study and Clean-up of Contaminated sites
7.3 Standards and Technical Guidelines for Assessment and Remediation of
Sites
7.4 List of Third Party Consultants
7.5 Certification of Remediated Sites
8 PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING BUILDING PLAN APPROVAL AND
TEMPORARY OCCUPATION PERMIT/CERTIFICATE OF
STATUTORY COMPLETION
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
3
Appendix
1 List of Clean Industries
2 List of Light Industries
3 List of General Industries
4 List of Special Industries
5 List of Scheduled Premises
6 List of Toxic Industrial Wastes
7 List of Hazardous Substances (amended in Feb 2009)
8 List of Specified Quantities of Hazardous Substances (amended in Feb 2009)
9 Allowable Limits for Trade Effluent Discharge (amended in Feb 2009)
10 Trade Effluent Tariff Scheme (amended in Jun 2002)
11 Trade Effluent Sampling Sump
12 Requirement on Continuous On-Line pH Monitoring and Effluent Discharge
Control at Last Inspection Chamber of Factory (amended in February 2004)
13 Installation of pH Meter and Penstock
14 Guidelines for Leak Test
15 Guidelines for Contingency Plan
16 Recommendation on Storage of Hazardous Substances
17 Retention Basin for Fire-Fighting Water for Warehouse Storing Hazardous
Substances
18 Dilution Tank
19 Standards of Concentration of Air Impurities (amended in Feb 2009)
20 Allowable Boundary Noise Limits for Factory Premises
21 Pollutive Activities Subject to Site Assessment Before Change of Use or
Rezoning (amended in Jun 2002)
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
4
INTRODUCTION
Environmental impact due to developments and related pollution problems can be
mitigated by ensuring that such developments are sited in designated areas and pollution
control measures are incorporated in the design of the developments. Control at the
planning stage is, therefore, important in the prevention of pollution.
Planning and development authorities consult the Pollution Control Department (PCD) of
the Ministry of the Environment (ENV) on the siting requirements for new developments
and compatibility with the surrounding land use. PCD also checks at this early stage that
the level of environmental management and control of the proposed developments is
acceptable.
Before a proposed development can be constructed under the Building Control Act, the
developer must submit Building Plans (BPs) of the building works to the Building Plan
and Management Division of the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) for
approval.
Before BCA approves the BPs, the BPs will have to be submitted and cleared by various
authorities such as the Fire Safety Bureau (FSB), National Parks Board, ENV, etc. In
ENV, the Central Building Plan Unit (CBPU) of PCD issues clearance of BPs subject to
compliance with sewerage, drainage, environmental health and pollution control
requirements. Technical requirements on pollution control are stipulated in the
Environmental Pollution Control Act and its regulations, and the Code of Practice on
Pollution Control.
A Working Committee was tasked to review and update the technical requirements in the
Code of Practice on Pollution Control. The Working Committee comprised ENV officers
and representatives from the Association of Consulting Engineers Singapore (ACES),
Institute of Engineers Singapore (IES) and Singapore Institute of Architects (SIA) as
follows:
(a) Mr Foong Chee Leong (Chairman)
Pollution Control Department, ENV
(b) Mr Tan Wee Hock
Pollution Control Department, ENV
(c) Mr Koh Sek Tong
Pollution Control Department, ENV
(d) Mr Hui Kok Choy
Pollution Control Department, ENV
(e) Er Tony Tay Chye Teck
Association of Consulting Engineers Singapore
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
5
(f) Er Loh Chew Thong
The Institution of Engineers, Singapore
(g) Dr Chris Vickery
Singapore Institute of Architects
(h) Madam Eng Yew Hoon
Singapore Institute of Architects
The aim of the Code of Practice is to inform industrialists, architects, professional
engineers and consultants on pollution control requirements for the submission of
development proposals and BPs. The requirements in the Code of Practice have been
changed from prescription-based to performance-based ones. The objective is to enable
industrialists, architects, professional engineers and consultants to exercise flexibility and
creativity in their designs and at the same time meet the requirements.
The latest edition of this Code of Practice contains eight sections as follow:
(a) Judicious Siting of Industries.
(b) Requirements for Industries, Warehouses and Business Parks.
(c) Clearance, Written Approval, Licence and Permit to Operate a Factory.
(d) Pollution Control Requirements.
(e) Hazardous Substances Control.
(f) Toxic Industrial Wastes Control.
(g) Control of Land Pollution and Remediation of Contaminated Sites
(h) Procedure for Obtaining Building Plan Approval and Temporary Occupation
Permit/Certificate of Statutory Completion.
General amendments and revisions are expected from time to time and any major
changes will be made known to the Association of Consulting Engineers Singapore,
Institution of Engineers Singapore and Singapore Institute of Architects.
Clarification on any aspect of this Code of Practice may be made with the Pollution
Control Department, National Environment Agency, Singapore.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
6
TERMINOLOGY
“air impurities” includes smoke, cinders, solid particles of any kind, gases, fumes, odours
and radioactive substances.
“fuel burning equipment” means any furnace, boiler, fire place, oven, retort or incinerator.
“hazardous substance” means any of the substances listed in the first column of Part I of
Appendix 7 but shall not include –
(a) such substance when contained in any substance, preparation or product
specified in the second column of Part I corresponding to that substance;
or
(b) such substance when contained in any substance, preparation or product
specified in Part II of Appendix 7.
“public sewer” includes
(a) a sewer which was vested in the Government before the appointed day
under the repealed Water Pollution Control and Drainage Act (Chapter
238) or any other written law;
(b) a sewer with respect to which a declaration of vesting has been made
under Section 9 of the Sewerage and Drainage Act;
(c) a sewer constructed by the Government on any private property at its
expense or acquired by the government; and
(d) a sewer erected on private property which is maintained by the
Government.
“pollutive substance” means any oil, solvent or chemical that can cause pollution to a
watercourse.
“scheduled premises” means any premises listed in Appendix 5.
“sewage” includes water-borne domestic waste and trade effluent.
“storm water” means rainwater or surface water but does not include sewage.
“toxic industrial waste” means any of the wastes listed in Appendix 6.
“trade effluent” means any liquid, either with or without particles of matter in suspension
therein, which is the outflow from any trade, business or manufacture or of any works of
engineering or building construction.
“unprotected water catchment” means an area from which potable water supplied by the
Public Utilities Board (PUB) is obtained but does not include a watercourse from which
water is pumped into a main of PUB.
“watercourse” includes a reservoir, lake, river, stream, canal, drain, spring or well or a
part of the sea abutting on the foreshore and any other natural, artificial or sub-surface
body of water.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
7
“controlled watercourse” means a watercourse from which potable water supplied by
PUB under the Public Utilities Act is obtained but does not include a watercourse from
which water is pumped into a main of PUB.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
8
1 JUDICIOUS SITING OF INDUSTRIES
1.1 Environmental impact can be mitigated by ensuring that any development is sited
in a designated area and pollution control measures are incorporated in its design.
It is, therefore, important at the planning stage of any development project for the
architect, professional engineer and developer to ascertain the impact of the
development in relation to the surrounding environment and vice versa. The
measures to control air, water and noise pollution, the management of hazardous
substances, and the treatment and disposal of toxic wastes should be examined
and indicated clearly in the development proposal.
1.2 To guide land use planning and help industrialists select suitable industrial
premises, industries are classified under 4 categories namely clean, light, general
and special industries based on the impact of residual emissions of fumes, dust
and noise on surrounding land use.
1.3 Depending on their scale of operations, food industries are also classified into
light, general or special category. However, in order to prevent crosscontamination
due to residual emissions from neighbouring premises, food
industries shall be sited in industrial premises in areas designated as food zones or
in areas with compatible industrial uses.
1.4 Industrial premises located close to residential areas and within unprotected water
catchments shall be allocated to clean or light industries only.
1.5 Warehouses located within unprotected water catchments shall not be used for
bulk storage of hazardous or pollutive substances.
1.6 To minimise risk from the handling of hazardous substances, special industries
which use large quantities of such chemicals are sited on off-shore islands or
industrial estates which are located away from residential estates.
2 REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIES, WAREHOUSES AND BUSINESS
PARKS
2.1 Clean Industry
(a) No buffer is required.
(b) Factory shall not generate air and water pollution as well as noise and
smell nuisance that can affect neighbouring premises.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
9
(c) Factory shall not use large quantities of hazardous substances such as
solvents, acids and other chemicals.
(d) A list of some clean industries is given in Appendix 1.
2.2 Light Industry
(a) There shall be a buffer distance of at least 50m between a light industrial
building and the nearest residential building.
(b) Factory shall not use equipment burning solid or fuel oil. Boilers using
diesel (0.005%S) and heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens and
autoclaves using gaseous fuel or electricity may be allowed.
(c) Factory shall not generate large quantities of trade effluent or solid waste.
(d) Factory shall not generate excessive impulsive or continuous noise.
(e) Factory shall not use large quantities of hazardous substances such as
solvents, acids and other chemicals.
(f) A list of some light industries is given in Appendix 2.
2.3 General Industry
(a) There shall be a buffer distance of at least 100m between a general
industrial building and the nearest residential building.
(b) Factory shall install, operate and maintain pollution control equipment to
minimise air, water and noise pollution arising from its operations as
specified by the Pollution Control Department (PCD).
(c) A list of some general industries is given in Appendix 3.
2.4 Special Industry
(a) There shall be a buffer distance of at least 500m between the boundaries
of a factory and the nearest residential building.
(b) Special industries, which can potentially cause serious pollution such as
oil refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, toxic industrial wastes
treatment facilities, etc, shall be sited at least 1 km from the nearest
residential building.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
10
(c) Factory shall install, operate and maintain pollution control equipment to
minimise air, water and noise pollution arising from its operations as
specified by PCD.
(d) Developers of special industries using or storing large quantities of
hazardous chemicals may be required to conduct the following studies:
(i) Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) Study
· To identify and quantify hazards and risks related to the
transport, use and storage of hazardous chemicals;
· To determine impact zones due to an accident which will lead
to fire, explosion or release of toxic gases (the impact zones
shall not extend to any residential building);
· To recommend measures to be incorporated in the design and
operation of the plant to keep risks to a low level and to
minimise impact zones; and
· To facilitate the development of emergency response plans to
deal with all credible accident scenarios.
(ii) Pollution Control (PC) Study
· To identify the sources of emission of air pollutants, discharge
of trade effluent, generation of wastes and emission of noise;
and
· To propose measures to reduce pollution and to mitigate
adverse pollution impact on surrounding land use.
(e) A list of some special industries is given in Appendix 4. Special
industries also include industries that have the potential to cause serious
air pollution or that store large quantities of hazardous substances
classified as Scheduled Premises. A list of Scheduled Premises is given in
Appendix 5.
2.5 Warehouses
(a) Warehouses located within unprotected water catchments are not allowed
tostore hazardous or pollutive substances.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
11
(b) Warehouses storing toxic and hazardous substances shall be provided
with pollution control facilities.
2.6 Business Parks
(a) No buffer is required.
(b) Activities shall not generate air and water pollution as well as noise and
smell nuisance that can affect neighbouring premises.
(c) Activities can include high technology manufacturing, research and
development, product design and development, data processing, software
development and industrial training that do not require the use or storage
of significant quantities of hazardous substances and solvents.
3 CLEARANCE, WRITTEN APPROVAL, LICENCE AND PERMIT
REQUIRED TO OPERATE A FACTORY
3.1 Clearance on Use of Industrial Premises
Prospective industrialists shall obtain clearance from PCD on the use of industrial
premises. At this stage of industrial development, PCD screens prospective
industries for compliance with the following:
(a) the premises is sited in a designated industrial estate and is compatible
with the surrounding land use.
(b) clean technology is adopted to minimise the use of hazardous substances
and the generation of wastes. The processes used will facilitate recycling,
reuse and recovery of the wastes.
(c) the use or storage of hazardous substances will not pose unmanageable
health and safety hazards and pollution problems.
(d) the discharge of trade effluent and emission of air impurities can comply
with discharge or emission standards.
(e) the wastes generated can be safely managed and properly disposed of.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
12
3.2 Written Approval
A written approval is required for any person to discharge trade effluent into a
public sewer.
3.3 Licence
(a) A licence is required for any person to discharge trade effluent into a
watercourse or controlled watercourse.
(b) A licence is required for any person to occupy and use any industrial
premises classified as Scheduled Premises. Industries that have the
potential to cause serious air pollution or that store large quantities of
hazardous substances are classified as Scheduled Premises. A list of
Scheduled Premises is in Appendix 5.
(c) A licence is required before any person can set up and operate a disposal
facility for toxic industrial wastes listed in Appendix 6.
(d) A licence is required for any person to collect or accept any toxic
industrial waste for storage, processing, use, treatment or disposal.
(e) A licence is required for any person to import, sell or export hazardous
substances which are listed in Appendix 7. Approval is also required to
transport hazardous substances exceeding quantities specified in
Appendix 8.
3.4 Permit
A permit is required for any person to store, purchase or use any hazardous
substances excluding ozone depleting substances except for methyl bromide.
3.5 Application for Clearance, Written Approval, Licence and Permit
Guidelines and forms on the application for Clearance, Written Approval,
Licence and Permit are available on the NEA web-site at:
http://www.nea.gov.sg/info/cbpu
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
13
4 POLLUTION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
Industrial developments shall be designed and incorporated with pollution control
facilities to reduce and control pollution so as to minimise any adverse pollution
impact on surrounding developments.
4.1 Water Pollution Control
4.1.1 General Requirements
(a) Trade effluent shall be treated to the allowable limits before discharge
into a public sewer, or into a watercourse if public sewer is not available.
The limits for the discharge of trade effluent into a public sewer and
watercourse are given in Appendix 9.
(b) Trade effluent containing Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total
Suspended Solids (TSS) exceeding the allowable limits may be
discharged into a public sewer subject to payment of trade effluent fees as
given in Appendix 10.
(c) Rainwater shall not be discharged into a public sewer. It shall be
channeled into a watercourse. Contaminated rainwater from process areas
shall be collected and treated before discharge into the watercourse.
(d) Secondary containment facilities shall be provided for storage tanks
containing oils and chemicals to contain accidental release of the entire
content of the largest storage tank.
(e) The occupier or owner of any premises shall notify PCD immediately of
any accidental release, leakage or spillages of oil or chemical.
(f) The occupier or owner shall take immediate mitigating measures to
control and contain the release, leakage or spillage and to clean up any
land, watercourses or other areas affected by the release, leakage or
spillage. All wastes generated shall be treated and disposed of safely.
4.1.2 Specific Requirements
(a) Trade Effluent Treatment Plant
A separate effluent drain-line shall be provided to collect and convey
trade effluent generated into a sampling sump before discharge into a
sewer. A schematic drawing of the sampling sump is given in Appendix
11.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
14
Industries generating trade effluent which does not meet the allowable
limits given in Appendix 9 shall install, operate and maintain a treatment
plant to treat the effluent to the allowable limits before discharge.
Diluting trade effluent with potable water, rainwater or industrial water to
comply with the allowable limits is not permitted. The trade effluent
treatment plant shall be designed and provided with spill containment
facilities to channel any spill to the treatment plant for treatment. The
containment facilities shall not collect rainwater. A sampling sump as
shown in Appendix 11 or other suitable effluent monitoring or sampling
system shall be provided at the final effluent discharge point prior to the
connection to a sewer.
For a trade effluent treatment plant, which includes neutralisation, a pH
monitoring cum effluent discharge control system shall be provided in the
last inspection chamber of the premises. The details of the monitoring and
control system are illustrated in Appendices 12 and 13.
(b) Cooling Tower
The overflow/drain-off of a cooling tower shall be discharged into a
public sewer.
(c) Boiler
Wastewater from boiler blow-down shall be cooled to below 45°C before
discharge into a public sewer.
(d) Chemical/Oil Store
A chemical/oil store shall be provided with facilities to contain any leak
and spillage. Such an area shall not have any outlet/opening leading to a
storm water drain or a sewer. All leaks and spillage shall be collected for
proper disposal as toxic industrial wastes.
(e) Chemical/Oil Bulk Storage Tanks
A full containment facility shall be provided for underground or above
ground bulk storage tanks (including skid tanks). The capacity of the
containment facility shall not be less than the capacity of the largest tank.
For a secondary containment facility that is fully enclosed, a leak
detection system with an alarm device shall be provided within the
secondary containment facility. A leak test shall be conducted before the
tank is put into
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
15
use. The leak test shall conform to the guidelines given in Appendix 14.
A contingency plan shall be developed and put in place to deal with leaks.
The contingency plan shall meet the requirements given in Appendix 15.
For an elevated storage tank, the secondary containment facility shall be
provided with measures to contain a shooting jet of chemical/oil escaping
from a rupture in the tank.
For a secondary containment facility exposed to the weather, it shall be
provided with a system to discharge rainwater collected in the
containment facility. The discharge system shall be designed and operated
to allow only rainwater to be discharged. If the rainwater is contaminated,
it shall be treated before discharge into a watercourse.
The connection point for a filling pipe of a bulk storage tank shall be
provided with measures to contain spillage.
(f) Chemical Warehouses
(i) Separate fire compartments shall be provided for the storage of
substances that can react dangerously with one another.
Substances in the same hazard categories may be stored together
as long as the compartment is protected against the most
hazardous substance. Recommendation on the storage of
hazardous substances is given in Appendix 16.
(ii) A retention basin for fire fighting water shall be provided for the
storage of hazardous substances.
(iii) The capacity of the retention basin depends on whether a fire
compartment is provided with automatic fire extinguishing system
such as water sprinklers. A smaller retention basin may be
provided if an automatic fire extinguishing system is installed.
The recommended volume of the retention basin for fire fighting
water is given in Appendix 17.
(iv) The floor of the chemical warehouse shall be coated with a layer
of chemical-resistant material.
(g) Laboratory
Wastewater generated from a chemical analysis laboratory shall be
discharged into a sewer via a balancing tank, which is also known as a
dilution tank. A sketch of the tank is shown in Appendix 18.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
16
If there is more than one chemical analysis laboratory, a common
balancing tank may be provided to serve the laboratories. The wastewater
from the laboratories may also be discharged into a trade effluent
treatment plant, if one is provided.
Wastewater generated from a biological/food analysis laboratory,
however, shall be discharged directly into a sewer.
(h) Aquacultural Farm
Trade effluent generated from aquacultural farms shall be treated to
comply with the allowable limits before it is discharged into a
watercourse. If the trade effluent does not include rainwater, it may be
treated for discharge into a public sewer.
Sludge, if generated, shall be stabilised, dewatered and disposed of as
solid waste.
(i) Livestock Farm
Livestock shall not be reared in the open. Proper covered sheds shall be
erected for the rearing of livestock.
Trade effluent generated shall be collected and treated to comply with the
allowable discharge limits before discharging into a public sewer or
watercourse where a public sewer is not available.
Animal wastes and sludge generated from wastewater treatment shall be
stabilised, dewatered and disposed of as solid waste.
Poultry wastes may be collected for disposal as solid wastes. The wastes
shall be stored inside a storage shed with a containment facility.
(j) Horticultural Farm
Pesticides and fertilizers that are approved by PCD or the Agri-food and
Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA) shall be used. For farms within
unprotected water catchments, the pesticides and fertilizers used shall also
be approved by PUB. The pesticides and fertilizers shall be applied
strictly in accordance with the guidelines of the manufacturers or
distributors to prevent pollution of surface water.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
17
4.2 Air Pollution Control
(a) The use of open fire to dispose of waste wood, timber and other
combustible wastes is prohibited.
(b) Trade and industrial premises, which carry out activities that can generate
air impurities, are required to install, operate and maintain air pollution
control equipment properly and efficiently. The pollution control
equipment shall be designed to comply with the allowable emission
standards. The emission standards for air impurities are given in
Appendix 19. For air impurities with no prescribed emission standards,
the best practical means shall be adopted to minimise air pollution.
Exhaust gases from the pollution control equipment shall be emitted into
the atmosphere through a discharge stack of a height approved by PCD to
ensure safe dispersion.
(c) Fuel burning equipment shall be efficiently operated and maintained. The
fuel burning equipment shall use a fuel approved by PCD. The sulphur
content of the fuel will be specified by PCD to ensure that the emission of
sulphur dioxide would not affect ambient air quality. Fuel burning
equipment installed at industrial premises that are sited within 100m of
any residential building shall use gaseous fuel or diesel with a sulphur
content of not more than 0.005% by weight.
(d) A chimney of an approved height shall be provided for the safe dispersion
of flue gases from fuel burning equipment. The height of the chimney is
computed based on the mass of sulphur dioxide emitted and the height of
buildings in the vicinity. The minimum height shall be at least 3m above
roof level of the factory building or 15m measured from ground level
whichever is the higher.
(e) Monitoring equipment shall be provided at the discharge stacks and
chimneys to monitor air impurities emitted. The monitoring equipment
shall be installed in accordance with the technical specifications of the
equipment supplier to give accurate readings. If sampling ports are
provided for manual installation of portable sampling equipment, the
ports shall be installed such that they are accessible. As an alternative to
monitoring the emission of air impurities at discharge stacks or chimneys,
equipment may be provided to monitor the performance of automatic
devices used to secure more efficient operation of any pollution control or
fuel burning equipment.
(f) Special waste incinerators for toxic industrial wastes shall be designed
and operated to comply with emission standards to be specified by PCD.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
18
4.3 Noise Pollution Control
(a) All practical noise abatement measures shall be adopted to comply with
the allowable boundary noise levels. The allowable boundary noise levels
are given in Appendix 20.
(b) For clean or light industries located adjacent to noise-sensitive and
residential developments, mechanical equipment such as air compressors,
chillers, cooling towers and air-conditioners, etc. shall be sited as far
away as practical from the noise-sensitive and residential buildings. Noise
abatement measures, if required, shall be provided to comply with the
allowable boundary noise levels.
5 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES CONTROL
(a) Companies that import, store and use hazardous substances are required
to obtain licences/permits from PCD. They are also required to obtain
approval from PCD to transport hazardous substances exceeding specified
quantities. The controls are to ensure that preventive measures are taken
to minimize accidental releases of hazardous substances into the
environment and emergency response plans are put in place to deal with
all credible accident scenarios of release of hazardous substances. The
preventive measures include the following:
(i) containers constructed and inspected in accordance with
internationally acceptable standards are used for the storage of
hazardous substances and affixed with approved labels;
(ii) storage areas are equipped with containment as well as disposal
facilities to deal with any accidental release of hazardous
substances;
(iii) route and time of transportation are specified for the
transportation of hazardous substances exceeding specified
quantities;
(iv) drivers of road tankers and tankers carrying hazardous substances
are required to undergo a special training course on safety
requirements and precautions, first aid and fire fighting and a
refresher course once every three years.
(v) The owner or consignor of any consignment of any hazardous
substance shall notify immediately of any accidental release,
leakage or spill of hazardous substances during transport.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
19
(vi) The owner or consignor shall ensure immediate mitigating
measures are taken to control and contain the release, leakage or
spill and clean up any land, drain or water courses affected by the
release, leakage or spill. All wastes generated shall be treated and
disposed of safely.
(b) Companies that are licensed to store and use large quantities of hazardous
substances are required to carry out a safety audit to systematically
identify and rectify weakness in their management systems and practices
for handling hazardous substances on a regular basis. The companies can
either conduct their own safety audits in-house or engage accredited
consultants to do so on their behalf.
6 TOXIC INDUSTRIAL WASTES CONTROL
(a) Factories are required to install in-house treatment facilities to recycle and
reuse their toxic waste or to treat their toxic waste for safe disposal.
Factories may, however, apply for clearance from PCD to engage
licensed toxic industrial waste collectors to collect their wastes for
recycling or treatment for safe disposal.
(b) Pathogenic wastes are listed as toxic industrial wastes. Hospitals and
polyclinics are required to segregate pathogenic wastes and put in colour
coded plastic bags. The wastes are then stored in special containers for
collection by licensed toxic industrial waste collectors for disposal in high
temperature incinerators.
(c) Operators of specialised toxic waste recycling, treatment and disposal
plants are required to obtain licences from PCD to collect, treat and
dispose of toxic industrial wastes from industries. They are also required
to obtain approval to transport toxic industrial wastes exceeding specified
quantities. The controls are to ensure that all toxic industrial wastes are
collected, treated and disposed of in compliance with the stipulated
standards. The operators are required to maintain a proper record on
collection, treatment and disposal of toxic industrial wastes.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
20
7 CONTROL OF LAND POLLUTION AND REMEDIATION OF
CONTAMINATED SITES
When a site that is used for pollutive activities is to be redeveloped, rezoned or
reuse for a non-pollutive activity, a study shall be conducted on the site to assess
extent of land contamination. If the site assessment study shows that the site is
contaminated, the contaminated site shall be cleaned up to standards acceptable
or the intended use.
7.1 Pollutive Activities
A list of pollutive activities is at Appendix 21.
7.2 Site Assessment Study and Clean-up of Contaminated Sites
Owners/occupiers or the prospective buyers/lessees may carry out the site
assessment study and clean up using in-house or second party experts. The use of
inhouse or second party experts is subject to approval from PCD. Alternatively,
they may engage a third party specialist consultant with recognised competence
in site assessment studies and remediation of contaminated sites to carry out the
site assessment study and clean up of the site.
(When a site used for a pollutive activity is to be leased, transferred or sold to
another party for the same or other pollutive activity, it is advisable that a site
assessment study be conducted to allow parties involved to ascertain extent of
existing contamination.
When a site is to be developed for a pollutive activity, it is advisable that a site
assessment study be conducted to establish the baseline soil conditions for future
assessment of land contamination.)
A report of the site assessment study and clean-up plan shall be submitted to PCD
and shall include the following information:
(a) Purpose and objective
(b) Site location and boundaries
(c) Site ownership
(d) Party responsible for assessment and management, if not owner.
(e) Soil consultant’s expertise
(f) Proposed use of site
(g) History of site - activities of previous owners
(h) Site assessment standard/methodology adopted
(i) Site inspection and evidence of possible contamination
(j) Initial testing - sampling protocol, locations, laboratory used
(k) Results of soil and groundwater (if applicable) analysis
(l) Conclusions.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
21
7.3 Standards and Technical Guidelines for Assessment and Remediation of
Sites
The following standards and technical guidelines may be adopted for site
assessment and remediation of contaminated sites:
(a) Dutch Guidelines for Soil Protection
(More information on the standards can be found at the following website:
http://www2.minvrom.nl/pagina.html/id=5027)
(b) ASTM E 1527-00 Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments:
Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process
(c) ASTM E 1903-97 Standard Guide for Environmental Site Assessments:
Phase II Environmental Site Assessment Process
(d) ASTM E1739-95e1 Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action
Applied at Petroleum Release Sites
(More information on the ASTM standards may be obtained from
http://www.astm.org.)
(e) Guidelines for Assessing and Managing Petroleum Hydrocarbon
Contaminated Sites in New Zealand
(More information on the standards can be found at the following website:
http://www.mfe.govt.nz/about/publications/contam_sites/oil/oil_guide.htm)
and any other standards or technical guidelines acceptable to PCD.
7.4 List of Third Party Specialist Consultants
A list of third party specialist consultants for site assessment studies and
remediation of contaminated sites is at the following website:
http://www.nea.gov.sg/info/cbpu
7.5 Certification of Remediated Sites
The remediated sites shall be certified by a second party expert or a third
party specialist consultant to meet standards required for its proposed
landuse. The certification shall contain the following:
(a) a statement that the subject site has been remediated to meet the
standards required for proposed use of the site; and
(b) a statement that the certification given is a true and unbiased
representation of the facts and that all reasonable professional
skill, care and diligence have been taken in checking the facts
The originals or authenticated copies of the certification shall be
submitted to PCD
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
22
8 PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING BUILDING PLAN APPROVAL AND
TEMPORARY OCCUPATION PERMIT/CERTIFICATE OF
STATUTORY COMPLETION
The procedure for obtaining Clearance Certificate for building plan approval and
Compliance Certificate for Temporary Occupation Permit/Certificate of Statutory
Completion for industrial developments is available on the NEA website at:
http://www.nea.gov.sg/info/cbpu
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
23
APPENDIX 1
LIST OF CLEAN INDUSTRIES
1 Software design and development.
2 Product/prototype design, industrial and engineering design.
3 Fashion designing.
4 Manufacture of polyethylene products (not involving printing operation).
5 Assembly and repair of computer hardware, audio-visual equipment, and other
communication/electronic equipment, apparatus and parts (not involving spray-painting,
electroplating or galvanising operations. Only minor soldering will be allowed).
6 Information Technology (IT) technical support/maintenance centres.
7 Assembly and repair of office, computing and accounting machinery (not involving spray-painting,
electroplating or galvanising operations).
8 Assembly and repair of electrical appliances and housewares (not involving spray-painting,
lectroplating or galvanising operations. Only minor soldering will be allowed).
9 Assembly and repair of photographic and optical goods (not involving spray-painting,
electroplating or galvanising operations).
10 Manufacture and repair of watches and clocks (not involving spray-painting, electroplating or
galvanising operations).
11 Warehousing activities and storage of finished products such as furniture, electric appliances,
garments, canned food and beverages etc.
12 Manufacture of paper products without printing activities.
13 Manufacture of professional, scientific, measuring and controlling equipment (not involving the
use of chemicals, inclusive of gaseous chemicals).
14 Diagnostics laboratories and referral laboratories.
15 International Specialist and engineering consultancy eg. oil exploration.
16 Medical and specialist centres eg. eye institutes, paediatrics, bionic limbs, health screening.
Clean industries are generally compatible to food industries. The food industries to be sited
adjacent to clean industries shall not give rise to any emissions that may affect the activities of the
clean industries..
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
24
APPENDIX 2
LIST OF LIGHT INDUSTRIES
Food industries:
1 Packing of dried foodstuff, blending of food ingredients, bottling of syrups/cordial juice.
2 Packing and bottling of medicinal herbs and medicated oil.
Others
3 Research & Development involving small quantities of chemicals.
4 Biotechnology.
5 Manufacture of made-up textile goods (except wearing apparel) without dyeing, bleaching and/or
other finishing operations.
6 Knitting mills without dyeing, bleaching and/or other finishing operations.
7 Manufacture of carpets and rugs without dyeing, bleaching and/or other finishing products.
8 Manufacture of wearing apparel (except footwear) without dyeing and/or bleaching operations.
9 Manufacture of footwear, except for those made of plastic or vulcanised or moulded rubber.
10 Manufacture of products of leather and leather substitutes, except footwear and wearing apparel.
11 Printing, publishing and allied industries.
12 Mould-making without metal stamping, etching or electroplating.
13 Manufacture of plastic products, not elsewhere classified.
14 Manufacture of containers and boxes of paperboard.
15 Manufacture of paper products also involving printing activities without pulping works or
bleaching operations.
16 Manufacture of aluminium window frames and grills from aluminium extrusions without
spraypainting operations.
17 Servicing and refilling of fire extinguishers.
Other light industries are generally compatible to food industries. The food industries to be sited
adjacent to light industries shall not give rise to any emissions that may affect the activities of the
light industries
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
25
APPENDIX 3
LIST OF GENERAL INDUSTRIES
Food industries:
1 Manufacture of food products (factories not having scheduled boilers):-
(i) Those food processing factories such as food catering, confectioneries, which generate
wastewater containing high concentration of oil and grease shall be sited in units which
are served by a separate sanitary plumbing system connected to a grease trap; and
2 Blending of flavours and fragrances.
Others that are compatible to food industries provided they are separated by light industries.
3 Manufacture of jewellery and related articles - very small-scale jewellery electroforming
operations could be allowed in flatted factories that are used for light industries.
4 Manufacture of electrical apparatus and supplies, not elsewhere classified.
5 Manufacture of professional, scientific, measuring and controlling equipment, not elsewhere
classified.
6 Manufacture of musical instruments.
7 Manufacture of sporting and athletic goods (not involving woodworking or electroplating
operations) - woodworking operations should not be allowed.
8 Manufacture of cutlery, hand tools and general hardware.
9 Manufacture of emergency lighting and power supply systems.
10 Blending of detergents and cleaning preparations, perfumes, hair-care products, cosmetics and
other toilet preparations.
Others that are not compatible to food industries and can be considered only if they are located
100m away
11 Manufacture of made-up textile goods, with dyeing, bleaching and/or other finishing operations.
12 Manufacture of textiles, not elsewhere classified.
13 Knitting mills with dyeing, bleaching and/or other finishing operations.
14 Manufacture of carpets and rugs with dyeing, bleaching and/or other finishing operations.
15 Manufacture of furniture and fixtures, except those made primarily of metal - activities must not
include the manufacture of rubber or polyurethane foam.
16 Manufacture of wooden and cane containers and small cane wares - bleaching of cane should not
be carried out.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
26
17 Manufacture of wood and cork products, not elsewhere classified.
18 Cordage, rope and twine industries.
19 Manufacture of metal drums and containers.
20 Manufacture of metallic components using powder metallurgy methods.
21 Manufacture of other metallic products involving metal-stamping, wire drawing and spring coiling.
22 Manufacture of dry cells and batteries - activities must not include manufacture of metal electrodes.
23 Cutting, grinding and polishing of marble and ceramic tiles.
24 Manufacturing industries, otherwise classified as clean or light industries, with spray-painting
operations.
25 Vehicle repair and servicing.
26 Repair and maintenance of engines, motors and mechanical pumps.
27 Industrial laundry services without scheduled boilers.
28 Filling/bottling of inert industrial gases such as nitrogen, helium and argon.
29 Storage of chemicals, detergents, oils, solvents, pesticides and related products.
30 Storage of rubber products and other odorous products.
31 Manufacturing industries, not elsewhere classified.
32 Manufacturing of joss sticks.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
27
APPENDIX 4
LIST OF SPECIAL INDUSTRIES
Food industries (obnoxious)
1 Slaughtering, preparing and preserving meat.
2 Manufacture of dairy products.
3 Canning and preserving of fruits and vegetables.
4 Canning, preserving and processing of fish, crustaceans and similar food.
5 Manufacture of vegetable and animal oils and fats.
6 Grain mill products.
7 Sugar factories and refineries.
8 Manufacture of prepared animal feed.
9 Other food-manufacturing industries with scheduled boilers.
10 Manufacture of alcoholic products.
11 Manufacture of drugs and medicines.
Others that are non compatible to food industries and can be allowed if they are located 100m
away
12 Manufacture of paints, varnishes and lacquers.
13 Other manufacturing industries involving the use of large quantities of organic solvents.
14 Assembly of computer hardware, audio-visual equipment, and other communication/ electronic
equipment, apparatus and parts involving electroplating.
15 Assembly of office, computing and accounting machinery involving electroplating or galvanizing
operations.
16 Assembly of electrical appliances and housewares involving electroplating or galvanizing
operations.
17 Assembly of photographic and optical goods involving electroplating or galvanising operations.
18 Manufacture of watches and clocks involving electroplating or galvanising operations.
19 Manufacture of sporting and athletic goods involving woodworking or electroplating operations.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
28
20 Other manufacturing industries with electroplating or galvanising operations.
21 Manufacture of furniture and fixtures that are primarily made of metal.
22 Iron and steel basic industries.
23 Manufacture of structural steel products.
24 Non-ferrous metal basic industries.
25 Metal-refining industries, including recovery of precious metals.
26 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment, not elsewhere
classified.
27 Manufacture of engines and turbines.
28 Manufacture of agricultural machinery and equipment.
29 Machining of metal and woodworking machinery.
30 Manufacture of special industrial machinery and equipment, except metal and woodworking
machinery.
31 Manufacture of machinery and equipment, except electrical, not elsewhere classified.
32 Manufacture of electrical industrial machinery and apparatus.
33 Tanneries and leather finishing.
34 Dressing and dyeing industries.
35 Spinning, weaving and finishing of textiles.
36 Manufacture of pulp, paper and paperboard including bleaching operations.
37 Sawmills and planing mills.
38 Other woodworking industries, not elsewhere classified.
39 Manufacture of basic industrial chemicals, except fertilisers.
40 Manufacture of fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides.
41 Manufacture of soaps and cleaning preparations, perfumes, cosmetics and other toilet preparations
(except those without chemical reactions).
42 Petroleum refineries.
43 Manufacture of synthetic resins, plastic materials and man-made fibres and foams, except those
made of glass.
44 Manufacture of miscellaneous products of petroleum and coal.
45 Manufacture of chemical products, not elsewhere classified.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
29
46 Processing of waste oils and waste chemicals.
47 Processing of food wastes, including composting plant.
48 Bulk storage of hazardous substances.
49 Tyre and tube industries.
50 Manufacture of rubber products, not elsewhere classified.
51 Manufacture of pottery, china and earthen ware.
52 Manufacture of glass and glass products.
53 Manufacture of structural clay products.
54 Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster.
55 Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products, not elsewhere classified.
56 Industries using radioactive materials.
57 Shipbuilding and repairing.
58 Manufacture of railroad equipment.
59 Manufacture of motor vehicles.
60 Manufacture of motorcycles and bicycles.
61 Manufacture of aircrafts.
62 Manufacture of transport equipment, not elsewhere classified.
63 Any other industrial premises classified as scheduled premises.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
30
APPENDIX 5
LIST OF SCHEDULED PREMISES
Scheduled Premises are any premises —
(a) being used for —
(i) cement works, being works for the manufacture or packing of portland cement,
similar cement or pozzolanic materials;
ii) concrete works, being works for the manufacture of concrete and of each batch
capacity greater than 0.5 cubic metre;
(iii) asphalt works, being works for the manufacture of asphalt or tarmacadam;
(iv) ceramic works, being works in which any products such as bricks, tiles, pipes,
pottery goods, refractories or glass are manufactured in furnaces or kilns fired
by any fuel;
(v) chemical works, being works in which acids, alkali, chemical fertilizer, soap,
detergent, sodium silicates, lime or other calcium compounds, chlorine,
chemicals or chemical products are manufactured;
(vi) coke or charcoal works, being works in which coke or charcoal is produced and
quenched, cut, crushed or graded;
(vii) ferrous and non-ferrous metal works, being works in which metal melting
process for casting and/or metal coating are carried out;
(viii) gas works, being works in which coal, coke, oil or other mixtures or derivatives
are handled or prepared for carbonisation or gasification and in which such
materials are subsequently carbonised or gasified;
(ix) crushing, grinding and milling works, being works in which rock, ores, minerals,
chemicals or natural grain products are processed by crushing, grinding, milling
or separating into different sizes by sieving, air elutriation or in any other
manner;
(x) petroleum works, being works in which crude or shale oil or crude petroleum or
other mineral oil is refined or reconditioned;
(xi) scrap metal recovery works, being works in which scrap metals are treated in
any type of furnace for recovery of metal irrespective of whether this is the
primary object of any specific premises or not;
(xii) primary metallurgical works, being works in which ores are smelted or
converted to metal of any kind;
(xiii) pulping works, being works in which wood or cellulose material is made into
pulp;
(xiv) abrasive blasting works, being works in which equipment or structures are
cleaned by abrasive blasting;
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
31
(b) on which there is erected any boiler of steam generating capacity of 2,300 kilogrammes
or more per hour, incinerator or furnace burning 500 kilogrammes or more of solid
combustible material per hour or 220 kilogrammes or more of liquid material per hour;
(c) being used or intended to be used for storing —
(i) more than 100 tonnes of one or more of the following substances: chemicals,
chemical products, hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon products which are toxic or
which produce toxic gases on burning or on contact with water or air; or
(ii) more than 1,000 tonnes of one or more of the following substances: chemicals,
chemical products, hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon products with a flashpoint
lower than 55°C.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
32
APPENDIX 6
LIST OF TOXIC INDUSTRIAL WASTES
List of Toxic Industrial Wastes
Acids
1. Spent inorganic acids
Eg. hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, boric acid and
pickling acid
2. Spent organic acids
Eg. acetic acid, formic acid, benzoic acid and sulphonic acid
Alkalis
1. Spent alkaline solutions
2. Spent ammoniacal solutions
3. Metal hydroxide sludges and oxide sludges
Antimony and its Compounds
1. Spent antimony potassium tartrate
Arsenic and its Compounds
1. Timber preservative residues containing arsenic
2. Wastes containing gallium arsenide
Asbestos
1. Asbestos wastes from asbestos/cement manufacturing processes
2. Empty sacks/bags which have contained loose asbestos fibre
Cadmium and its Compounds
1. Plating effluents and residues containing cadmium
2. Wastes containing cadmium from Ni/Cd battery manufacturing
Chromium Compounds
1. Plating effluents and residues containing chromium
2. Timber preservative residues containing chromium
3. Spent and aqueous solutions containing chromium compounds
4. Tannery effluents and residues containing chromium
Copper Compounds
1. Plating effluents and residues containing copper
2. Spent etching solutions containing copper from printed circuit board manufacturing
3. Timber preservative residues containing copper
Cyanides
1. Plating effluents and residues containing cyanides
2. Heat treatment residues containing cyanides
3. Spent quenching oils containing cyanides
4. Spent processing solutions containing cyanides from photographic processing
Fluoride Compound
1. Timber preservative residues containing fluorides
2. Spent ammonium bi-fluoride
Isocyanates
1. Spent di-isocyanates
Eg. toluene di-isocyanate (TDI) and methylene di-isocyanate
(MDI) from polyurethane foam-making process
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
33
List of Toxic Industrial Wastes
Laboratory Wastes
1. Obsolete laboratory chemicals
2. Toxic chemical wastes from chemical analysis
Lead Compounds
1. Sludges containing lead oxide/sulphate
2. Spent organo-lead compounds
Eg. tetraethyllead (TEL) and tetramethyllead (TML)
3. Waste lead-acid batteries, whole or crushed
Mercury and its Compounds
1. Effluents, residues or sludges containing mercury from
chlor-alkali industry
2. Wastes containing mercury from equipment
manufacturing involving the use of metal mercury
3. Spent catalysts from chemical processes containing
mercury
4. Spent organo-mercury compounds
Metal Catalysts
1. Spent metal catalysts from chemical processes and petroleum refining
Eg. catalysts containing chromium and cobalt
Nickel Compounds
1. Plating effluents and residues containing nickel
Organic Compounds containing Halogen
1. Spent halogenated organic solvents
Eg. trichloroethylene, 111-trichloroethane, perchloro-ethylene, methylene chloride, tetrachloromethane
and 112-trichloro-122-trifluoroethane
2. Residues from recovery of halogenated organic solvents
3. Packaging materials or residues containing chloro- benzenes and/or chlorophenols and their salts
Organic Compounds not containing Halogen
1. Spent non-halogenated organic solvents
Eg. benzene, toluene, xylene, turpentine, petroleum, thinner, kerosene, methanol, ethanol, isobutanol,
iso-propanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, isopropyl ether, diethyl ether, hexane,
dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide
2. Residues from recovery of non-halogenated organic solvents
Other Wastes
1. Obsolete/abandoned chemicals and pesticides from storage, manufacturing and trading activities
2. Used containers, bags and process equipment contaminated by chemicals and pesticides from
storage, manufacturing and trading activities
3. Wastes/residues containing unreacted monomers, eg. vinyl chloride and styrene monomers, from
polymer manufacturing processes
4. Tar residues from distilling and tarry materials from refining
5. Wastes from toxic waste treatment processes Eg. wastes and residues from solidification, fixation
and incineration processes
6. Wastes from toxic chemical drums and tank cleaning activities
7. Chemical and oil slops from ship tankers
8. Wastes from the production, formulation and use of resins, latex, plasticisers, glues/adhesives
containing solvents and other contaminants.
9. Wastes from the production, formulation and use of inks, dyes, pigments, paints, lacquers, varnish
containing organic solvents, heavy metals or biocides.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
34
List of Toxic Industrial Wastes
Pathogenic Wastes
1. Pathogenic wastes from hospitals
Phenolic Compounds
1. Sludges/residues from paint stripping using chemicals containing phenols
2. Residues containing unreacted phenol and formaldehyde from adhesive industry
Polychlorinated Bi-phenyl (PCB) including
Poly-chlorinated Ter-phenyl (PCT)
1. Spent transformer oil containing PCB and/or PCT
2. Retrofilled transformer contaminated with PCB and/or PCT
3. Electrical equipment and parts containing or contaminated with PCB and/or PCT
Eg. Capacitors and transformers
4. Containers and all waste materials contaminated with PCB and/or PCT
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
1. All waste materials containing PVC
Eg. PVC insulated wires, PVC pipes and trunking, PVC parts, PVC upholstery and PVC resins
Silver Compounds
1. Spent processing solutions containing silver from photographic processing
Used, Contaminated Oil
1. Used mineral, lubricating and hydraulic oil from machine cylinders, turbines, switch gears and
transformers
2. Spent motor oils from petrol and diesel engines
3. Spent quenching oil from metal hardening
4. Oil recovered from solvent degreasers
5. Spent oil water emulsions
Eg. Spent coolants from metal working industries
6. Oil water mixtures (mainly oil)
Eg. Oily ballast water from ship tankers
7. Oil and sludge from oil interceptors
8. Tankers sludges and oil sludges/residues from storage tanks
9. Oil sludges containing acid from recovery and recycling of used oil
Zinc Compounds
1. Plating effluents and residues containing zinc
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
35
APPENDIX 7
LIST OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
Part I – Hazardous substances
Hazardous Substances
Substance Exclusion
1,2-dibromoethane (EDB)
Acetic acid Substances containing not more than 80%, weight in weight, of
acetic acid;
Preparations and solutions for photographic use.
Acetyl bromide
Allyl isothiocyanate
Alkali metal bifluorides; Ammonium
bifluoride; Potassium fluoride; Sodium
fluoride; Potassium silicofluoride;
Sodium silicofluoride; Silicofluoric acid
Preparations containing not more than 0.3%, weight in weight, of
potassium fluoride in radiator protectors;
Preparations containing not more than 0.96%, weight in weight, of
potassium fluoride in photographic chemicals;
Substances containing not more than 3%, weight in weight, of
sodium fluoride or sodium silicofluoride as a preservative;
Substances containing sodium fluoride intended for the treatment
of human ailments.
Ammonia Preparations and solutions of ammonia containing not more than
10%, weight in weight, of ammonia;
Refrigeration equipment;
Photographic and plan developers;
Hair colour dyes;
Perm lotions;
Smelling bottles.
Ammonium chlorate
Anionic surface active agents Preparations containing less than 5% by weight of anionic surface
active agents;
Preparations containing anionic surface active agents which are not
less than 90% biodegradable under a test carried out in accordance
with that part of the OECD method which is referred to
as ?Confirmatory Test Procedure? in European Communities
Council Directive No. 73/405/EEC (C) or other equivalent test
methods acceptable to the Director.
Antimony pentachloride Polishes
Antimony trihydride
Arsenical substances, the following:
Arsenic acid
Pyrites ores or sulphuric acid containing arsenical poisons as
natural impurities;Animal feeding stuffs containing not more than
0.005%, weight in weight, of 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl-arsonic
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
36
Arsenic sulphide
Arsenic trichloride
Arsine
Calcium arsenite
Copper arsenate
Copper arsenite
Lead arsenate
Organic compounds of arsenic
Oxides of arsenic
Potassium arsenite
Sodium arsenate
Sodium arsenite
Sodium thioarsenate
acid and not containing any other arsenical poison;
Animal feeding stuffs containing not more than 0.01%, weight in
weight, of arsanilic acid and not containing any other arsenical
poison;
Animal feeding stuffs containing not more than 0.0375%, weight
in weight, of carbarsone and not containing any other arsenical
poison.
Asbestos in the form of crocidolite,
actinolite, anthophyllite, amosite,
tremolite, chrysotile and amphiboles and
products containing these forms of
asbestos
Asbestos in the form of chrysotile in any vehicle brake or clutch
lining installed in any vehicle registered before 1st April 1995.
Boric acid; Sodium borate Boric acid or sodium borate in medicinal preparations, cosmetics,
toilet preparations and substances being preparations intended for
human consumption;
Preparations containing boric acid or sodium borate or a
combination of both where water or solvent is not the only other
part of the composition.
Boron tribromide
Boron trichloride
Boron trifluoride
Bromine; Bromine solutions
Cadmium-containing silver brazing
alloy
Captafol
Carbamates Benomyl;
Carbendazim;
Chlorpropham;
Propham;
Thiophanate-methyl;
Preparations containing not more than 1%, weight in weight, of
propoxur and not containing any other carbamate;
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
37
Preparations containing not more than 1%, weight in weight, of
methomyl and not containing any other carbamate.
Carbon monoxide Gas mixtures containing carbon monoxide weighing less than 1
metric tonne;
Gas mixtures containing carbon monoxide as by-products from
combustion activities.
Carbon tetrafluoride
Chlorinated hydrocarbons, the
following:
Aldrin
Benzene hexachloride (BHC)
Bromocyclen
Camphechlor
Chlorbenside
Chlorbicyclen
Chlordane
Chlordecone
Chlordimeform
Chlorfenethol
Chlorfenson
Chlorfensulphide
Chlorobenzilate
Chloropropylate
Dicophane (DDT)
pp'-DDT
Dicofol
Dieldrin
Endosulfan
Endrin
Fenazaflor
Paper impregnated with not more than 0.3%, weight in weight, of
benzene hexachloride or gamma - BHC provided it is labelled with
directions that no food, wrapped or unwrapped, or food utensils are
to be placed on the treated paper, and that it is not to be used where
food is prepared or served.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
38
Fenson
Fluorbenzide
Gamma benzene hexachloride (Gamma -
BHC), also known as lindane
HCH (mixed isomers)
HEOD [1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-
epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a- octahydro-1, 4
(exo): 5,8 (endo)-dimethano
naphthalene]
HHDN [1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-
1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4 (exo):5,8
(endo)-dimethano naphthalene]
Heptachlor
Hexachloroethane
Isobenzan
Isodrin
Kelevan
Methoxychlor [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di-(pmethoxyphenyl)
ethane]
Mirex
Tetrachlordiphenylethane
[TDE; 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (pchlorophenyl)
ethane]
Tetradifon
Tetrasul
Toxaphene
Allied chlorinated hydrocarbon
compounds used as pesticides
(insecticides, acaricides, etc.)
Chlorine Chlorine used for chlorination of water in swimming pools.
Chlorine trifluoride
Chlorobenzenes, the following:
Monochlorobenzene
Meta-dichlorobenzene
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
39
Ortho-dichlorobenzene
Trichlorobenzene
Tetrachlorobenzene
Pentachlorobenzene
Hexachlorobenzene
Chlorophenols, the following:
Monochlorophenol
Dichlorophenol
Trichlorophenol
Tetrachlorophenol
Pentachlorophenol and its salts and
esters
Substances containing not more than 1%, weight in weight, of
chlorophenols.
Chlorophenoxyacids; their salts, esters,
amines, which include but are not
limited to -
2,4,5-T and its salts and esters
Chloropicrin
Chlorosilanes, the following:
Hexachlorodisilane
Phenyltrichlorosilane
Tetrachlorosilane
Chlorosulphonic acid
Chromic acid Substances containing not more than 9%, weight in weight, of
chromic acid;
Photographic solutions containing chromic acid in individual
containers containing not more than 15 kilograms each of such
solutions and of aggregate weight of not more than 500 kilograms
of such solutions.
Cyanides Ferrocyanides;
Ferricyanides;
Acetonitrile;
Acrylonitrile;
Butyronitrile;
2-Dimethylaminoacetonitrile;
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
40
Isobutyronitrile;
Methacrylonitrile;
Propionitrile.
Diborane
Dibromochloropropane
Diethyl sulphate
Dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC)and its
salts (such as ammonium salt, potassium
salt and sodium salt)
Dinosam; its compounds with a metal or
a base
Dinoseb and its salts and esters, which
includes but is not limited to -
Binapacryl
Diquat; its salts
Drazoxolon; its salts Dressings on seeds.
Dustable powder formulations
containing a combination of -
Benomyl at or above 7 percent,
carbofuran at above 10 percent, thiram
at or above 15 percent.
Endothal; its salts
Epichlorohydrin
Ethyl mercaptan Substances containing less than 1%, weight in weight, of ethyl
mercaptan
Ethylene dichloride
Ethylene imine
Ethylene oxide Mixtures of inert gases and ethylene oxide comprising not more
than 12%, weight in weight, of ethylene oxide contained in
cylinders of water capacity less than 47 litres and for aggregate of
not more than 3 numbers of such cylinders.
Ferric chloride
Fipronil Formulated products containing Fipronil approved for household
use and belonging to the WHO class IV hazards.
Fluorine
Fluoroacetamide
Formaldehyde Substances containing not more than 5%, weight in weight, of
formaldehyde;
Photographic glazing or hardening solutions.
Formic acid Substances containing not more than 5%, weight in weight, of
formic acid.
Germane
Hydrazine anhydrous; Hydrazine
aqueous solutions
Hydrochloric acid Substances containing not more than 9% , weight in weight, of
hydrochloric acid.
Hydrofluoric acid Preparations or solutions containing not more than 2%, weight in
weight, of hydrofluoric acid.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
41
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen cyanide; Hydrocyanic acid Preparations of wild cherry;
In reagent kits supplied for medical or veterinary purposes,
substances containing less than the equivalent of 0.1%, weight in
weight, of hydrocyanic acid.
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen selenide
Isocyanates Polyisocyanates containing less than 0.7%, weight in weight, of
free monomeric diisocyanates;
Pre-polymerised isocyanates in polyurethane paints and lacquers;
Hardeners and bonding agents for immediate use in adhesives.
Lead compounds in paint Lead compounds in paint in which the lead content is not more
than 0.06% by weight of the paint;
Lead compounds in paint in which the container is affixed with an
appropriate label.
The labels to be used for paints containing lead compounds are in
accordance with Part IV of the Second Schedule
Lead tetra-ethyl and similar lead
containing compounds in petrol intended
for use in Singapore as fuel for motor
vehicles
Mercury compounds including inorganic
mercury compounds, alkyl mercury
compounds, alkyloxyalkyl and aryl
mercury compounds, and other organic
compounds of mercury
Mercury and its compounds in batteries Batteries other than mercury oxide batteries, zinc carbon batteries
containing more than 0.001% by weight of mercury per cell and
alkaline batteries, except those in button form, containing more
than 0.025% by weight of mercury per cell.
Metanil yellow (sodium salt of
metanilylazo-diphenylamine)
Dye-indicators used in laboratories
Methyl chloride
Methyl mercaptan Substances containing less than 1%, weight in weight, of methyl
mercaptan
Monomethyltetrachloro diphenyl
methane
Monomethyl-dichloro-diphenyl methane
Monomethyl-dibromodiphenyl methane
Neonicotinoid compounds used as
pesticides, the following :
Imidacloprid
Formulated products containing Imidacloprid approved for
household use and belonging to the WHO class IV hazards.
Niclofolan
Nicotine sulphate
Nitric acid Substances containing not more than 9%, weight in weight, of
nitric acid.
Nitric oxide
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
42
Nitrobenzene Substances containing less than 0.1%, weight in weight, of
nitrobenzene;
Soaps containing less than 1%, weight in weight, of nitrobenzene;
Polishes and cleansing agents.
Nitrogen trifluoride
Ozone depleting substances, namely:
(a) Chlorofluorocarbons, the following:
Chloroheptafluoropropane
Chloropentafluoroethane
Chlorotrifluoromethane
Dichlorodifluoromethane
Dichlorohexafluoropropane
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane
Heptachlorofluoropropane
Hexachlorodifluoropropane
Pentachlorofluoroethane
Pentachlorotrifluoropropane
Tetrachlorodifluoroethane
Tetrachlorotetrafluoropropane
Trichlorofluoromethane
Trichloropentafluoropropane
Trichlorotrifluoroethane
(b) Halons, the following:
Bromochlorodifluoromethane
Bromochloromethane
Bromotrifluoromethane
Dibromotetrafluoroethane
(c) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, the
Products containing any ozone depleting substance other than the
following products:
(a) in the case of chlorofluorocarbons ?
(i) air-conditioners in vehicles registered on or after 1st January
1995 or intended for such vehicles;
(ii) equipment for domestic or commercial refrigeration or airconditioning
installed on or after 1st January 1993, or heat pump
equipment, which contains any chlorofluorocarbon substance as a
refrigerant or in any insulating material of such equipment;
(iii) refrigerators that have a compressor rating which exceeds
one horsepower;
(iv) non-pharmaceutical aerosol products;
(v) insulation boards, panels or pipe covers;
(vi) polystyrene sheets or finished products;
(b) in the case of Halons, portable fire extinguishers; and
(c) in the case of bromotrifluoromethane, fire protection systems
with building plans approved after 17th June 1991 and installed
after 31st December 1991.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
43
following:
1,1-dichloro-1-fluoro-ethane
1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3,3-
pentafluoropropane
1,3-dichloro-1,2,2,3,3-
pentafluoropropane
1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-ethane
Chlorodifluoroethane
Chlorodifluoromethane
Chlorodifluoropropane
Chlorofluoroethane
Chlorofluoromethane
Chlorofluoropropane
Chlorohexafluoropropane
Chloropentafluoropropane
Chlorotetrafluoroethane
Chlorotetrafluoropropane
Chlorotrifluoroethane
Chlorotrifluoropropane
Dichlorodifluoroethane
Dichlorodifluoropropane
Dichlorofluoroethane
Dichlorofluoromethane
Dichlorofluoropropane
Dichloropentafluoropropane
Dichlorotetrafluoropropane
Dichlorotrifluoroethane
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
44
Dichlorotrifluoropropane
Hexachlorofluoropropane
Pentachlorodifluoropropane
Pentachlorofluoropropane
Tetrachlorodifluoropropane
Tetrachlorofluoroethane
Tetrachlorofluoropropane
Tetrachlorotrifluoropropane
Trichlorodifluoroethane
Trichlorodifluoropropane
Trichlorofluoroethane
Trichlorofluoropropane
Trichlorotetrafluoropropane
Trichlorotrifluoropropane
(d) Hydrobromofluorocarbons, the
following:
Bromodifluoroethane
Bromodifluoromethane
Bromodifluoropropane
Bromofluoroethane
Bromofluoromethane
Bromofluoropropane
Bromohexafluoropropane
Bromopentafluoropropane
Bromotetrafluoroethane
Bromotetrafluoropropane
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
45
Bromotrifluoroethane
Bromotrifluoropropane
Dibromodifluoroethane
Dibromodifluoropropane
Dibromofluoroethane
Dibromofluoromethane
Dibromofluoropropane
Dibromopentafluoropropane
Dibromotetrafluoropropane
Dibromotrifluoroethane
Dibromotrifluoropropane
Hexabromofluoropropane
Pentabromodifluoropropane
Pentabromofluoropropane
Tetrabromodifluoropropane
Tetrabromofluoroethane
Tetrabromofluoropropane
Tetrabromotrifluoropropane
Tribromodifluoroethane
Tribromodifluoropropane
Tribromofluoroethane
Tribromofluoropropane
Tribromotetrafluoropropane
Tribromotrifluoropropane
(e) Carbon tetrachloride
(f) 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
46
chloroform)
(g) Methyl bromide
Oleum
Orange II [sodium salt of p-(2-hydroxy-
1-naphthylazo) benzenesulphonic acid]
Dye-indicators used in laboratories
Organic peroxides Car puttys;
Substances and preparations containing not more than 3%, weight
in weight, of organic peroxides;
Solutions of not more than 60%, weight in weight, of methyl ethyl
ketone peroxides and total aggregate weight of less than 50
kilograms of such solutions.
Organo-tin compounds, the following:
Compounds of fentin
Cyhexatin
Tributyl tin compounds
Paraquat; its salts Preparation in pellet form containing not more than 5%, weight in
weight, of salts of paraquat ion.
Perchloromethyl mercaptan Substances containing less than 1%, weight in weight, of
perchloromethyl mercaptan
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)
Phenols, the following:
Catechol
Cresol
Hydroquinone
Octyl phenol
Phenol
Resorcinol
Preparations containing less than 1%, weight in weight, of
phenols;
Phenols which are intended for the treatment of human ailments
and other medical purposes;
Soaps for washing;
Tar (coal or wood), crude or refined;
Photographic solutions containing hydroquinone in individual
containers containing not more than 15 kilograms each of such
solutions and of aggregate weight of not more than 500 kilograms
of such solutions.
Phosgene
Phosphides
Phosphine
Phosphoric acid Substances containing not more than 50%, weight in weight, of
phosphoric acid.
Phosphorus compounds used as
pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, etc.),
which includes but is not limited to :
Methamidophos
Methyl-parathion
Monocrotophos
Parathion
Acephate;
Bromophos;
Iodofenphos;
Malathion;
Pirimiphos-methyl;
Temephos;
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
47
Phosphamidon Tetrachlorvinphos;
Trichlorfon;
Preparations containing not more than 0.5%, weight in weight, of
chlorpyrifos and not containing any other phosphorus compound;
Preparations containing not more than 0.5%, weight in weight, of
dichlorvos and not containing any other phosphorus compound;
Materials impregnated with dichlorvos and not containing any
other phosphorus compound for slow release;
Preparations containing not more than 1%, weight in weight, of
azamethiphos and not containing any other phosphorus compound.
Phosphorus oxybromide
Phosphorus oxychloride
Phosphorus pentabromide
Phosphorus pentachloride
Phosphorus pentafluoride
Phosphorus trichloride
Polybrominated biphenyls
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs), the following :
Penta-brominated diphenyl ether
Octa-brominated diphenyl ether
Deca-brominated diphenyl ether
Polychlorinated biphenyls
Polychlorinated terphenyls
Potassium hydroxide Substances containing not more than 17%, weight in weight, of
potassium hydroxide;
Accumulators;
Batteries.
Prochloraz
Pyrethroid compounds used as
pesticides, the following :
Fenvalerate
Formulated products containing Fenvalerate approved for
household use and belonging to the WHO Class IV hazards.
Sodium azide Air bag devices in motor vehicles
Sodium hydroxide Substances containing not more than 17%, weight in weight, of
sodium hydroxide;
Made-up formulated preparations either liquid or solid for
biochemical tests.
Sulphur in diesel intended for use in
Singapore as fuel for motor vehicles or
industrial plants
Sulphur in diesel in which the sulphur content is 0.005% or less by
weight.
Sulphur tetrafluoride
Sulphur trioxide
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
48
Sulphuric acid Substances containing not more than 9%, weight in weight, of
sulphuric acid;
Accumulators;
Batteries;
Fire extinguishers;
Photographic developers containing not more than 20%, weight in
weight, of sulphuric acid.
Sulphuryl chloride
Sulphuryl fluoride
Tetraethyl lead, tetramethyl lead and
similar lead containing compounds
Thallium; its salts
Titanium tetrachloride
Tris (2, 3-dibromo-l-propyl) phosphate
Tungsten hexafluoride
Part II - General Exemptions
Adhesives;
Anti-fouling compositions;
Anti-fouling compositions other than those containing tributyl tin compounds as defined in this List;
Builders' materials other than those containing asbestos as defined in this List;
Ceramics;
Distempers;
Electrical valves;
Enamels;
Explosives;
Fillers;
Fireworks;
Fluorescent lamps;
Glazes;
Glue;
Inks;
Lacquer solvents;
Loading materials;
Matches;
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
49
Motor fuels and lubricants except diesel oil and petrol;
Paints other than paints containing mercury compounds, paints containing lead compounds and paints
containing asbestos as defined in this List;
Pharmaceutical Aerosols
Photographic paper;
Pigments other than those containing tributyl tin compounds as defined in this List;
Plastics;
Propellants other than those containing ozone depleting substances;
Rubber;
Varnishes;
Vascular plants and their seeds.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
50
APPENDIX 8
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES –
QUANTITIES EXCEEDING WHICH TRANSPORT APPROVAL IS REQUIRED
Substance Qty (kgs)
1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) 0
Acetyl bromide 0
Allyl isothiocyanate 0
Acetic acid 1000
Ammonia (35% or greater) 500
Ammonia (less than 35%) 1000
Antimony pentachloride 50
Antimony trihydride 0
Arsine 0
Arsenical Substances 50
Boric Acid; Sodium borate 5000
Boron tribromide 0
Boron trichloride 50
Boron trifluoride 50
Bromine, bromine solutions 50
Captafol 0
Carbamates except bendiocarb, BPMC (fenobucarb), mercaptodimethur
(methiocarb) 0
Carbon monoxide 1000
Carbon tetrafluoride 500
Chlorine 500
Chlorine trifluoride 50
Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds used as pesticides 0
Chlorobenzenes 0
Chlorophenols 0
Chlorophenoxyacids; their salts, esters, amines 0
Chlorosilanes 50
Chlorosulphonic acid 50
Chromic acid 50
Cyanides 50
Diborane 50
Dibromochloropropane 50
Diethyl sulphate 500
Epichlorohydrin 50
Ethyl mercaptan 50
Ethylene dichloride 0
Ethylene imine 0
Ethylene oxide 50
Ferric chloride 1000
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
51
Fipronil 5000
Fluorine 0
Fluoroacetamide 0
Formic acid 1000
Germane 0
Hydrazine anhydrous, hydrazine aqueous solutions 50
Hydrochloric acid 1000
Hydrocyanic acid; Hydrogen cyanide 0
Hydrofluoric acid 500
Hydrogen chloride 500
Hydrogen selenide 0
Isocyanates 500
Lead tetra-ethyl and similar lead containing compounds in petrol
intending for use in Singapore as a fuel for motor vehicles 0
Mercury compounds including inorganic mercury compounds, alkyl
mercury compounds, alkyloxyalkyl and aryl mercury compounds, and
other organic compounds of mercury
0
Metanil yellow (sodium salt of metanilylazo-diphenylamine) 5000
Methyl bromide 50
Methyl chloride 50
Methyl mercaptan 50
Monomethyltetrachloro diphenyl methane 0
Monomethyl-dichloro-diphenyl methane 0
Monomethyl-dibromo-diphenyl methane 0
Neonicotinoid compounds used as pesticides 5000
Nitric acid (95% or greater) 50
Nitric acid (less than 95%) 1000
Nitric oxide 0
Nitrogen trifluoride 50
Oleum 50
Orange II (sodium salt of p-(2-hydroxy-1 naphthylazo)
benzenesulphonic acid) 5000
Organic peroxides 500
Organo-tin compounds 0
Perchloro methyl mercaptan 50
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) 0
Phenols 500
Phosgene 0
Phosphides 0
Phosphine 0
Phosphorous compounds except dimethoate, fenchlorophos,
fenitrothion, Phenthoate, profenophos, Prothiophos, quinalphos 0
Phosphorus oxybromide 0
Phosphorus oxychloride 50
Phosphorus pentabromide 0
Phosphorus pentachloride 50
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
52
Phosphorus pentafluoride 50
Phosphorus trichloride 50
Polybrominated biphenyls 0
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) 0
Polychlorinated biphenyls 0
Polychlorinated terphenyls 0
Potassium hydroxide 1000
Prochloraz 0
Pyrethroid compounds used as pesticides 5000
Sodium azide 0
Sodium hydroxide 1000
Sulphur in diesel intended for use in Singapore as fuel for motor
vehicles or industrial plants 0
Sulphur tetrafluoride 0
Sulphur trioxide 50
Sulphuric acid 1000
Sulphuryl chloride 0
Sulphuryl fluoride 0
Tetraethyl lead, tetramethyl lead and similar lead containing compounds 0
Titanium tetrachloride 1000
Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate 0
Tungsten hexafluoride 0
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
53
APPENDIX 9
ALLOWABLE LIMITS FOR TRADE EFFLUENT DISCHARGED
INTO A PUBLIC SEWER/WATERCOURSE/CONTROLLED WATERCOURSE
Items Of Analysis Public Sewer Watercourse Controlled
Watercourse
(Units in milligram per litre or otherwise stated)
1 Temperature of discharge 45 °C 45 °C
2 Colour 7 Lovibond Units 7 Lovibond Units
3 pH Value 6 - 9 6 - 9
4 BOD (5 days at 20°C) 50 20
5 COD 100 60
6 Total Suspended Solids 50 30
7 Total Dissolved Solids - 1000
8 Chloride
(as chloride ion)
- 250
9 Sulphate
(as SO4)
- 200
10 Sulphide
(as sulphur)
0.2 0.2
11 Cyanide
(as CN)
0.1 0.1
12 Detergents (linear alkylate
sulphonate as methylene
blue active substances)
15 5
13 Grease and Oil 10 (Total)
10(Hydrocarbons)
1 (Total)
14 Arsenic 0.1 0.01
15 Barium 2 1
16 Tin - 5
17 Iron (as Fe) 10 1
18 Beryllium - 0.5
19 Boron 5 0.5
20 Manganese 5 0.5
21 Phenolic Compounds
(expressed as phenol)
0.2 Nil
22 *Cadmium
Please refer to
PUB's web page
0.1 0.003
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
54
23 *Chromium (trivalent and
hexavalent)
1 0.05
24 *Copper 0.1 0.1
25 *Lead 0.1 0.1
26 *Mercury 0.05 0.001
27 *Nickel 1 0.1
28 *Selenium 0.5 0.01
29 *Silver 0.1 0.1
30 *Zinc 1 0.5
31 *Metals in Total 1 0.5
32 Chlorine (Free) 1 1
33 Phosphate
(as PO4)
5 2
34 Calcium
(as Ca)
- 150
35 Magnesium (as Mg) - 150
36 Nitrate
(as NO3)
- 20
NOTE: * Where 2 or more of the metals listed in the table are present in the trade effluent, the total
concentration of the metals shall not exceed 1 and 0.5 milligrams per litre for discharge into
a watercourse and a controlled watercourse respectively.
“Controlled Watercourse” means a watercourse from which potable water supplied by PUB
under the Public Utilities Act is obtained but does not include a watercourse from which
water is pumped into a main of the PUB.
The trade effluent discharged into any watercourse shall not contain any of the following
substances:-
(1) radioactive material;
(2) any pesticide, fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, rodenticide or fumigant;
(3) refuse, garbage, sawdust, timber, human or animal waste or solid matter;
(4) petroleum or other inflammable solvent; or .
(5) a substance that either by itself or in combination or by reaction with other waste
or refuse may give rise to any gas, fume, or odour or substance which is or is likely
to be a hazard to human life, a public nuisance, injurious or otherwise
objectionable.
The trade effluent shall be analysed in accordance with the latest edition of 'Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater' published jointly by the
American Water Works Association and the Water Pollution Control Federation of the
United States.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
55
APPENDIX 10
TRADE EFFLUENT TARIFF SCHEME
The scale of fee to be levied for the discharge of biodegradable trade effluent into a public sewer
is as follows:-
Fee at $ per cubic metre Concentration or part thereof
(mg/l) BOD TSS
400 - 600 0.21 0.15
601 - 800 0.42 0.30
801 - 1000 0.63 0.45
1001 - 1200 0.84 0.60
1201 - 1400 1.05 0.75
1401 - 1600 1.26 0.90
1601 - 1800 1.47 1.05
1801 - 2000 1.68 1.20
2001 - 2200 1.89 1.35
2201 - 2400 2.10 1.50
2401 - 2600 2.31 1.65
2601 - 2800 2.52 1.80
2801 - 3000 2.73 1.95
3001 - 3200 2.94 2.10
3201 - 3400 3.15 2.25
3401 - 3600 3.36 2.40
3601 - 3800 3.57 2.55
3801 - 4000 3.78 2.70
NB: BOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand (5 days at 20OC)
TSS = Total Suspended Solids
Trade effluent containing BOD or TSS greater than 4000 mg/l shall be treated to the required
limit prior to discharge into a public sewer.
Prior approval is required to dispose of organic sludge at a designated Water Reclamation
Plants/Sludge Treatment Works on the payment of a fee at a rate of $7.00 per cubic meter or part
thereof. Organic sludge means the organic matter in trade effluent which has a minimum solid
content of 97 per cent by weight.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
56
APPENDIX 11
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
57
APPENDIX 12
REQUIREMENTS ON CONTINUOUS ON-LINE pH MONITORING AND EFFLUENT
DISCHARGE CONTROL AT LAST INSPECTION CHAMBER OF FACTORY
1 Continuous pH monitoring and effluent discharge control shall be carried out at the last
inspection chamber before the discharge enters a public sewer.
2 A concrete hump of not more than 50mm (vertical height) shall be constructed across the
flow channel of the last inspection chamber to maintain effluent in the channel when
there is no effluent discharge.
3 A chemical resistant pH probe (range of 0-14) shall be installed in the channel upstream
of the hump. The pH probe shall detect/monitor the pH value of the discharge. The probe
shall be positioned firmly such that the tip of the probe is constantly in contact with the
liquid in the channel. It shall also be easily lifted out of the chamber and repositioned
back without the need to go down the chamber. An auto flushing system using water or
compressed air shall be provided to prevent any fouling or clogging of the sensor of the
pH probe.
4 The cable of the pH probe shall be laid in a heavy duty PVC conduit. The mountings for
the pH probe inside the last inspection chamber shall be of corrosion resistant materials.
5 A pH recorder chart (range of 0-14) shall be provided to record the pH value detected as
well as to record the 'open' and 'close' position of the penstock. The pH value shall be
recorded on a chart which can be continuously operated for a month.
6 A penstock with an electrically operated actuator shall be installed at the inlet to the last
inspection chamber. If a pneumatic actuator is used, the air/gas supply shall be tapped
from a cylinder. The actuator shall be linked to a pH controller and the record chart. A
limit switch to indicate the 'open' or 'close' position of the penstock shall be incorporated.
The switch shall be linked directly to the recorder chart. The setting of the actuator shall
be such that the penstock remains open as long as the pH value varies within the
allowable limit of 6 to 9. Exceeding the limit, the pH controller shall activate the actuator
to close the penstock.
7 The pH meter, recorder with alarm and penstock actuator shall be operated either on AC
or DC supply. However, the system should incorporate a power back-up such that during
power failure/interruption, the back-up shall continue to operate the pH meter and
recorder for a period of 5 hours and the actuator (if necessary). During normal operation,
power shall be supplied from the AC main to operate the monitoring instrument and
charge the power pack simultaneously.
8 An instrument panel (weather-proof) shall be provided to house:-
(a) pH meter cum controller (range of 0 - 14).
(b) pH chart recorder (range of 0 - 14).
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
58
(c) alarm - audible type.
(d) power pack (rechargeable batteries).
(e) AC/DC converter.
(f) Air/gas cylinder, if any.
(g) Resetting switch/button for the actuation of the penstock.
9 The door of the instrument panel shall be provided with a glass or plastic window for
viewing the pH recorder chart.
10 Wherever appropriate the instrument panel shall be located near or within the guardhouse.
11 Means to seal the instrument panel and the last inspection chamber cover shall be
provided. PCD will seal the instrument panel and the last inspection chamber. The seal
will be broken when the instrument panel or inspection chamber is opened.
12 The instrument panel and the last inspection chamber shall not be opened without PCD's
approval. PCD will replace the seal after each occasion when the instrument panel or
inspection chamber has been opened.
13 Details of the monitoring and control system shall be submitted to PCD before
installation.
NOTES:
1 The factory is responsible for the proper maintenance of the system which include
regular cleaning and calibration of the pH probe.
2 Failure to discharge the effluent within the allowable limit at all times will render the
factory liable to prosecution under the Sewerage and Drainage(Trade Effluent)
Regulations, 1999.
3 The pH recorder chart shall be endorsed by the factory before it is submitted to PCD
for checking on a monthly basis.
4 The above system will ensure that only properly neutralised effluent is discharged to a
public sewer. This is to protect the sewerage system from being damaged by corrosive
discharge.
5 In order to prevent inconvenience caused by the shutting of the penstock (due to
undesirable pH level), factories may consider providing effluent recycling facilities to
accommodate any unforeseen event.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
59
APPENDIX 13
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
60
APPENDIX 14
GUIDELINES FOR LEAK TEST
A leak test shall be conducted before an underground tank is put into use. The leak test shall
conform to the following guidelines:-
° The leak test method shall be able to measure a leak rate of at least 0.19 litre per hour,
and be capable of testing the entire tank system, including piping.
° If the tank has a loss rate in excess of 0.19 litre per hour, the tank shall be considered to
be leaking.
° The leak tests shall be carried out in accordance with an established leak test method and
certified by professional engineers. The test results shall be submitted to PCD.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
61
APPENDIX 15
GUIDELINES FOR CONTINGENCY PLAN
A contingency plan to deal with leaks from underground tanks shall be submitted to PCD. The
contingency plan shall include the following :-
° To appoint a competent party or person to deal with leaks from underground tanks.
° To set up guidelines to activate the contingency plan (ie. who, when and how to contact
emergency coordinator, confirmation of leak, etc).
° To inform PCD as soon as leak is detected. FSB shall also be informed if the
chemical/product is flammable or combustible.
° To remove chemical/product from the tank to a temporary storage by the competent party
or person.
° To remove the tank for inspection.
° To remove the contaminated soil for proper disposal.
° To carry out soil testing to ensure that all the pollutants have been removed.
° To repair or replace the tank and re-construct the secondary containment chamber if
necessary.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
62
APPENDIX 16
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
63
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
64
APPENDIX 17
RETENTION BASIN FOR FIRE-FIGHTING WATER FOR WAREHOUSE
STORING HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
Fire Compartment
(m2)
Average Fire-
Fighting Water Used
(l/m2
min)
Retention Of Fire-
Fighting Water
(m3/m2)
Total Volume of
Retention Required
(m3)
50 WO WS
With WS
3.3
3.3
0.1
0.1
5
5
100 WO WS
With WS
6.6
6.6
0.2
0.2
20
20
150 WO WS
With WS
8.8
8.8
0.4
0.4
60
60
200 WO WS
With WS
10.0
10.0
0.6
0.6
120
120
300 WO WS
With WS
7.7
6.6
0.7
0.4
210
120
400 WO WS
With WS
6.6
5.0
0.8
0.3
320
120
500 WO WS
With WS
6.0
4.0
0.9
0.25
450
120
600 WO WS
With WS
5.8
3.3
1.0
0.2
600
120
800 WO WS
With WS
5.6
2.5
1.2
0.15
960
120
1000 WO WS
With WS
5.4
2.0
1.4
0.12
1400
120
1200 WO WS
With WS
5.2
1.7
1.5
0.1
1800
120
1600 WO WS
With WS
5.0
1.3
1.5
0.075
2400
120
>1600 WO WS
With WS
5.0
1.3
1.5
0.075
To Be Calculated
120
WO WS = Without Water Sprinklers.
With WS = With Water Sprinklers.
NOTE: The retention volume does not include materials leaked out from containers and rainwater.
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
65
APPENDIX 18
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
66
APPENDIX 19
STANDARDS OF CONCENTRATION OF AIR IMPURITIES
Substance Trade, industry, process, fuel
burning equipment or industrial
plant
Emission limits
(a) Ammonia and ammonium
compounds
Any trade, industry or process 76 mg/Nm3 expressed as ammonia
(b) Antimony and its
compounds
Any trade, industry or process 5 mg/Nm3 expressed as antimony
(c) Arsenic and its compounds Any trade, industry or process 1 mg/Nm3 expressed as arsenic
(d) Benzene Any trade, industry or process 5 mg/Nm3
(e) Cadmium and its
compounds
Any trade, industry or process 3 mg/Nm3 expressed as cadmium
(f) Carbon monoxide Any trade, industry, process or fuel
burning process
625 mg/Nm3
(g) Chlorine Any trade, industry or process 32 mg/Nm3
(h) Copper and its compounds Any trade, industry or process 5 mg/Nm3 expressed as copper
(i) Dioxins and furans Any waste incinerator i 1.0 ng TEQ/Nm3 for waste
incinerators commissioned before 1st
Jan 2001
ii 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3 for waste
incinerators commissioned on or after
1st Jan 2001
(j) Ethylene oxide Any trade, industry or process 5 mg/Nm3
(k) Fluorine, hydrofluoric acid
or inorganic fluorine
compounds
Any trade, industry or process 50 mg/Nm3 expressed as hydrofluoric
acid
(l) Formaldehyde Any trade, industry or process 20 mg/Nm3
(m) Hydrogen chloride Any trade, industry or process 200 mg/Nm3
(n) Hydrogen sulphide Any trade, industry or process 7.6 mg/Nm3
(o) Lead and its compounds Any trade, industry or process 5 mg/Nm3 expressed as lead
(p) Mercury and its compounds Any trade, industry or process 3 mg/Nm3 expressed as mercury
(q) Oxides of nitrogen Any trade, industry, process or fuel
burning equipment
700 mg/Nm3 expressed as nitrogen
dioxide
(r) Particulate substances
including smoke, soot, dust,
ash, fly-ash, cinders, cement,
lime, alumina, grit and other
Any trade, industry, process, fuel
burning equipment or industrial
plant (except for any cold blast
foundry cupolas)
i 100 mg/Nm3*; or
ii where there is more than one flue,
duct or chimney in any schedules
premises, the total mass of the
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
67
Substance Trade, industry, process, fuel
burning equipment or industrial
plant
Emission limits
solid particles of any kind particulate emissions from all of
such flue, duct or chimney divided
by the total volume of such
emissions shall not exceed 100
mg/Nm3 and the particulate
emissions from each of such flue,
duct or chimney shall not exceed
200 mg/Nm3 at any point in time.
(s) Smoke All stationary fuel-burning sources Ringelmann No. 1 or equivalent opacity
(Not to exceed more than 5 minutes in
any period of one hour)
(t) Styrene monomer Any trade, industry or process 100 mg/Nm3
(u) Sulphur dioxide (noncombustion
sources)
Any trade, industry or process 500 mg/Nm3
(v) Sulphur trioxide and other
acid gases
The manufacture of sulphuric acid 500 mg/Nm3 expressed as sulphur
trioxide
Effluent gases shall be free from
persistent mist.
(w) Sulphur trioxide or
Sulphuric acid mist
Any trade, industry or process,
other than any combustion process
and any plant involving the
manufacture of sulphuric acid
100 mg/Nm3 expressed as sulphur
trioxide
(x) Vinyl chloride monomer Any trade, industry or process 20 mg/Nm3
Note: The concentration of any substance specified in the first column emitted from any operation in any
trade, industry, process, fuel burning equipment or industrial plant specified in the second column
shall not at any point before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, exceed the limits specified
in the third column.
‘‘dioxins and furans’’ means polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans
(PCDF), being tricyclic and aromatic compounds formed by 2 benzene rings which are connected by 2
oxygen atoms in PCDD and by one oxygen atom in PCDF and the hydrogen atoms of which may be
replaced by up to 8 chlorine atoms;
‘‘mg’’ means milligram;
‘‘ng’’ means nanogram;
‘‘Nm 3 ’’ means normal cubic metre, being that amount of gas which when dry, occupies a cubic metre at a
temperature of 0 degree Centigrade and at an absolute pressure of 760 millimetres of mercury;
‘‘TEF’’ means Toxic Equivalency Factor;
‘‘TEQ’’ means Toxic Equivalent, being the sum total of the concentrations of each of the dioxin and furan
compounds specified in the first column of the table below multiplied by their corresponding TEF specified
in the second column thereof:
Dioxin/Furan TEF
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
68
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.01
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.0001
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran 0.05
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran 0.5
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran 0.01
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran 0.01
Octachlorodibenzofuran 0.0001
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
69
APPENDIX 20
BOUNDARY NOISE LIMITS FOR FACTORY PREMISES
The maximum permitted boundary noise levels are as follows:
Maximum permitted noise level (reckoned as the
equivalent continuous noise level over the
specified period) Type of affected in decibels (dBA)
premises
Day
7 am - 7 pm
Evening
7 pm - 11 pm
Night
11 pm -7 am
Noise Sensitive
Premises 60 55 50
Residential
Premises 65 60 55
Commercial
Premises 70 65 60
Maximum permitted noise level (reckoned as the
equivalent continuous noise level over
Type of affected 5 minutes) in decibels (dBA)
premises
Day
7 am - 7 pm
Evening
7 pm - 11 pm
Night
11 pm -7 am
Noise Sensitive
Premises 65 60 55
Residential
Premises 70 65 60
Commercial
Premises 75 70 65
Factory
Premises 75 70 65
Code of Practice on Pollution Control (2000 Edition) (with amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002, Feb 2004
and Feb 2009)
70
APPENDIX 21
Pollutive Activities Subject To Site Assessment
Before Change of Use Or Rezoning
a) Oil installations and other premises storing, handling and using large quantities of
oils and similar hydrocarbons products, including the following:
Oil refineries;
Oil depots;
Petrochemical complexes;
Petrol stations and refueling depots;
Aircraft manufacture and repair industries;
Motor repair workshops.
b) Chemical plants, chemical warehouses or terminals including the following:
Chemical warehouses or terminals;
Pharmaceutical/biomedical plants;
Pesticides formulation factories;
Wood treatment and preservation facilities;
Large electroplating works;
Factories that use, manufacture or store toxic chemicals.
c) Shipyards and grit blasting works
d) Gas works
e) Power stations
f) Toxic wastes treatment facilities
g) Scrap yards
h) Landfill site for municipal or industrial wastes
i) Facilities for the treatment of sewage.

No comments:

Post a Comment